Technical writing is a specialised form of writing.
Its goal is to help readers use a technology or to understand a process, product or concept. Often these processes, products or concepts are complex, but need to be expressed in a much simpler, reader-friendly form.
So within the technical writing genre, you will find: technical reports, installation and maintenance manuals, proposals, white papers, on-line help, process standards, work instructions and procedures.
While each discipline has its specific requirements, some basic elements are common. But before looking at those, the most important thing a technical writer must consider is the audience.
How familiar are readers with the subject and with the specialised terms and abbreviations you need to use?
What is the best way to explain those terms or shortened forms – footnotes, endnotes, glossary, table of abbreviations, appendix, links?
Do you need to accommodate secondary readers (e.g. the manager or financier who will make the decision about the proposal), and how will you do that?
Now for those all-important elements:
Clarity – The logical flow of the document will help readers understand the content. It can be useful to ask someone who is not familiar with the topic to review your writing before you finalise it. Using headings, illustrations, graphs or tables can be useful – your aim is to make it as easy as possible for your readers to understand what you’ve written. Consider how the way the text sits on the page or screen – another clue to maximising clarity for your readers.
Accuracy – The information and the interpretation of data that you present must be accurate. If it’s not, your readers will question the credibility of the content. Be careful to clearly differentiate between fact and opinion, and to accurately cite references to other works.
Brevity – Strive to find the balance between the amount of information presented and the time needed to read the document. Remember that you can use an appendix or link to provide supplementary or background information. Consider using an illustration, table or graph rather than words to explain a concept – but remember, if you use a ‘visual’, don’t give a long written explanation.
Sentence length – Generally, complex or unfamiliar concepts are best presented in shorter sentences. This will give readers time to digest small pieces of information before moving on to the next. While this can be difficult to achieve, try to aim for approximately 25 words per sentence. If you find you’ve written a series of long sentences, look for ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘however’ and similar words where you can break the sentence.
Paragraphs – The age-old rule about one topic per paragraph is a useful guide. That doesn’t mean that you can have only one paragraph for each topic, but it does mean that having only one topic in each paragraph makes for clear, logical writing.
Reader-centricity – You are writing for your readers. Make it as easy as possible for them to understand your work.
Keep these basic elements and other principles in mind as you undertake your technical writing tasks.
A short story is a literary work that tells a series of event in a specific setting. These series of events are the product of the writer’s powerful mind and imagination. They are the result of contemplations, and realizations done by the writer either during his gloomy or happy days. Short stories are the outlet of the writer’s emotions. It is through short stories that a writer directly or indirectly expresses his ideals, beliefs and opinions regarding issues that continually confronting the society. Thus stories are written due to several purposes such as to inspire, to educate, to entertain and to provoke one’s emotions.
Whichever the purpose of a particular story, one thing that is very much sure is that stories have lots of benefits to everyone.
For children stories teach them moral lessons which will be planted in their young minds and that they can ponder upon as they grow older. Other than that, they help in the enhancement of children’s imaginative thinking which leads to creativity. According to some experts, children are being trained to think imaginatively while listening or reading stories in accordance to how the writer describes the setting, characters, and events that took place in the story. More than that, children are taught to focus their attention to a specific topic so that if they will be engaged to more complicated brainstorming or emersions they won’t have any difficulty. One thing more, their vocabularies will be developed. As a result,, this will help them develop their communication skills both in oral and written communication.
For older person, stories especially with those that contain humor entertain people. Short stories would also provoke questions in the minds of people regarding life and society. Short stories enables them see realities even though the events in the stories did not happen in actual scenes; but there are several situations in life that can be related to those events. The readers are made to see and think of the realities in life. Another thing is that stories teach people to appreciate the beauty of life. This is because through short stories that the adventures of people are told. These characters are used to symbolize things in the real society. It is through them that writers relate the message they wanted their readers to grasp. Despite the fact that these characters shown in these stories don’t exist in real life, their struggles can be compared to someone in real life.
Those benefits mentioned above are only among the many benefits of reading short stories. Seeing those benefits that stories can give, it is just correct to conclude that reading short stories is helpful to all.
I recently researched the NFL draft prospects of San Diego State senior running back Rashaad Penny and was shocked by what I found. One writer thought Penny might be a fifth round pick or lower and criticized his speed and power. Others called him a “fringe player” at best. I watched Penny both last year and this year and I also had season tickets during Marshall Faulk’s three seasons at SDSU. They were both great college running backs, but Faulk was a number two overall NFL draft pick and had a Hall of Fame NFL career. Many people don’t think Penny is in the same conversation as Faulk, but Penny has accomplished some things during his college career that Faulk never did. To make my point that Penny should be a number one pick, let me first recount his accomplishments in college to make my case.
To begin with, Penny was NOT a starting running back until his senior season. That may seem like a knock, but the reason why is because the Aztecs number one back for several seasons was the NCAA’s all-time leading rusher, Donnel Pumphrey. Despite that fact that he was the backup runner to Pumphrey in 2016, Penny still gained over 1,000 rushing while Pumphrey gained over 2,000 yards. No NCAA team had ever had both a 2,000 and 1,000 yard rusher on the same team before. Then this season the Aztecs became the only team to have to have two consecutive 2,000 rushing performances by two different players when Penny rushed for 2,295 yards. In his senior year Penny led the nation in rushing, total yards (2,974), and came in second in touchdowns (28). He won multiple honors for Mountain West Offensive Player of the Week as well as Special Teams POW. More honors have rolled in as he has been named to several All-American teams. Anyone can argue that Penny is not a great running back and I would go toe-to-toe with someone on that. However, if you try to argue that he’s not a great returner, don’t even start. Currently Penny is the co-holder for the most kickoff returns for a touchdown in NCAA history. He has seven overall (two this season) and the first time his head coach, Rocky Long, decided to use him as a punt returner Penny took that one to the house. Twice during his senior season Penny had a game when he scored three different ways. From short distance or 100 yards away, Penny finds a way to get into the end zone.
Penny’s last game in an Aztecs uniform came in the Armed Forces Bowl and he didn’t disappoint. Despite the fact that Army’s national leading running attack chewed up most of the clock, Penny made the most of his few chances. On his first official carry of the game he went 81 yards for a touchdown. After seven touches he broke that bowl game’s rushing record. After ten touches he surpassed over 200 yards rushing for the fifth straight time. On his 14th carry he collected his fourth touchdown of the game. However, one of his best plays was when he didn’t even touch the ball. On a short kickoff Penny’s teammate, Juwan Washington, was returning the kick when Penny flattened one of the Army’s finest with a devastating block. He continued to block another cadet into the end zone as Washington scored. Yeah, he can block.
Did I mention that he also caught two passes for TDs as well? Penny may not be ambidextrous, he just looks like it. In the game against Nevada he took a pitch going to his left, stopped, and started to throw a pass left-handed. The receiver was covered so he decided to run instead (for a TD). In the game against Air Force he was running a crossing route from left to right when his quarterback threw the ball high and behind Penny. He just reached back with his right hand and snared the ball one-handed. Yeah, he has great hands.
I wondered what the knock on Penny was and why he was projected to go so low in the draft. One evaluation didn’t even have him in the top 20 rated backs in college. The argument that most would present is competition. The Mountain West Conference had some teams that were terrible at stopping the run. Penny did play against two PAC-12 teams this season and had over 100 yards against both Arizona State and Stanford. However, in both Aztec losses this season Penny failed to rush for over 100 yards. The two sub-par performances were due to poor blocking as there was also bad pass protection in those games as well. In fact, the Aztecs offensive line was young and inexperienced as only one senior was a starter and he missed several games with an injury. I think that it’s actually a tribute to Penny that he gained over 2,000 yards with such an inexperienced line. One other thing: There were several games when Penny was pulled in the third or fourth quarter because the Aztecs were so far ahead. Coach Long doesn’t care about stats during the games. He just wants to win and keep his number one back fresh for the next game. An example would be the San Jose State game when the Aztecs rushed for over 500 yards as a team. Penny only touched the ball once in the second half, which resulted in a long touchdown run that put him over the 200 yard mark. By that time the Aztecs were ahead by 35 points so there was no need to use Penny any more. If he had got the majority of carries in the second half, he might have rushed for 300, maybe 400 yards or more, and got more Heisman attention.
Now to address some other criticisms of Penny: Speed and power. There have been several times this season when Penny broke into the clear and it was a footrace between him and some defensive back. No matter what kind of angle the defender took, Penny outran him to the end zone. During the entire season Penny was only caught from behind once on an ankle tackle in the last game of the regular season. On one kickoff return I thought he would pause and pick up the blocker that was in front of him, but he simply ran by him and the defenders who were nearby. As for Penny power, after some encouragement from his coaches, Penny started turning opposing players into pancakes as well as dragging a linebacker about ten yards on one play. He’s a bull who can fly and that’s a rare combo.
One of the main reasons I think Penny should be a number one pick is that he answers two needs at the same time. Any team that needs a running back and a kickoff returner can get a two-for-one deal and that makes him extremely valuable. Kick returning seems to be a lost art in the NFL as most teams struggle to get returns to the 25 yard line. Penny could change all that for some team next season.
I’ve seen a lot of football in my time and I’ve seen some great backs. I’ve seen LT play for the Chargers. I’ve seen Faulk play for the Aztecs. Penny is as good as those guys and may even be better because he returns kicks and they didn’t. Anyone who saw Penny’s performance against Nevada this season should be convinced of Penny’s potential greatness and how special he is. In that game he had a 70 yard TD run called back for a penalty. Even without that run Penny finished with over 200 yards rushing, over 400 total yards, two TDs on kick returns and four TDs overall. If Penny isn’t a first round pick in the 2018 NFL draft, then some team is going to get an absolute steal when they draft him. If he’s lucky enough to play for a team with a good offensive line, he could become the NFL’s next offensive rookie of the year.
Celebrities come and go. They can either stay for a couple of years, but some fail to carve a niche in the entertainment industry and remain a starlet. Some are successful and become iconic in the music scene, television and movies.
You might be wondering why some of them have disappeared in the industry. If you observe their stellar status, the luckiest are those who share common characteristics that made them rich and famous.
Take a peek at the 8 common characteristics famous celebrities have in common. Find out if you have any of these traits that can be helpful in your chosen profession.
1. Strong determination and confidence. Celebrities are confident and determined to pursue their goal no matter what happens. They are the kind of people who do not care about what others say when they pose nude in a men’s magazine or wear a bizarre outfit. Getting out of poverty and to become famous are two things that prodded them to try their luck in Hollywood hoping that they could find the right people to help them in their budding career.
2. Their work ethic is infectious. Actors and singers are deprived of sleep as they have to stay awake until the following day to finish their commitment. They work hard not only because they know that they are highly compensated for their efforts, but because they want to leave a legacy when they are no longer active in the industry. Highest paid actors only spend 2 to 3 hours of sleep until their project is finished. But the prices they get from being workaholics can buy them a new house, a car, a set of jewelry and a swanky bag.
3. They work for the sake of art. Multi-awarded actors are choosy in their roles despite the high talent fee that they could receive for a particular project. Top caliber actors who have become financially stable would pick meaty roles that could earn them an Oscar award. They don’t mind if they have to go bald or topless for as long as the role will increase their level of creativity and transform them into a respected actor. Some celebrities accept roles that are challenging even if they don’t share the same billing stature with the main actors.
4. They are creative and unique. Famous Hollywood personalities defy the standard and social norms. They never stop creating and reinventing themselves to enable them to catch the public’s attention. Miley Cyrus, Madonna, J Lo, Michael Jackson and to name a few, had their own strings of gimmickry and controversy to promote their albums or movies. Even local artist in some key cities in the world do the same thing even if it could ruin their reputation and make them infamous. Defying the norm and ignoring their bashers is the best action that celebrities must do to succeed in their showbiz career. Gossips are part of showbiz and welcoming them with an open heart can make them stronger and better celebrities.
5. They think, believe and dream big. True artists think that there is no small role for them. Budding actors must heed what their veteran counterparts say that in order for them to be recognized and earn big, they should accept any role that can hone their acting prowess. Since the competition in the world of showbiz has become stiff, they must grab every opportunity that comes their way. Not unless they are products of reality shows or beauty contests, penetrating the entertainment industry is a bit hard. Changing their mindset from small to big things will inspire them to strive hard and make it big in showbiz.
6. They have a high emotional quotient. Although beauty and talent are important things to consider when discovering a new talent, movie directors and producers would prefer actors with a good work attitude. Celebrities who are acting like divas will most likely to lose their chance of getting the right break because their attitude can cause a lot of problems during location shooting. High EQ celebrities come to work before call time and they do not cause glitches or delay at work. They can mingle with anyone in the set from the director to the janitor. They can laugh at their own mistakes and can exchange jokes with their fellow workers, even if they have been sleepless for several nights. Most of all, they welcome strangers and mobbing fans for autograph and photo ops.
7. They enjoy every bit of their work. Become passionate about your work as an artist in the real sense of the word will give you more inspiration to hone your craft. Celebrities who are enjoying their career are the one who will become successful as they do not get discouraged when failure comes in one point of their lives.
8. Money and fame are only secondary. These two things that can lead to frustration if celebrities are unable to achieve them. Some famous celebrities who are getting less projects and their fans are ignoring them have become depressed and suicidal. This is because they think that money and fame are the most important things in life. But the truth is, any career that is taken with passion can be a great source of your finances if you know how to save your money.
Celebrities who have lost their careers because of their bad attitude have realized that becoming famous and wealthy does not happen overnight. They have to learn the traits that could propel their popularity and eventually land them a lot of projects.
Aspiring actors/actresses who are given the break should realize that the competition is so high in the industry. A single flaw is observed from you could put you down and it would be too late to realize that a newcomer will soon replace your position in showbiz. Getting rich quick is a mere fantasy as you need to start from scratch, and when you are already at the top of your success, remain humble and grounded.