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The 4 Different Types of Connectives Used in Good Public Speaking

Qoʻqon UZ - Dakhmai-Shokhon 05

Good public speaking skills involve more than presenting informative or persuasive material to an audience in an engaging, uplifting manner. It requires the use of connectives to keep your presentation or speech organized as well as unified. Better than a verbal tic, such as ‘um’ or ‘ah,’ by employing good connectives in your speech, you will also make it easier for your listeners to both follow what you are saying and remember more of what you are saying.

The 4 types of connectives include:

1. Signposts

Without a doubt, one of the most popular forms of connectives are signposts. The signpost refers to very brief statements that tell your audience where you are in your speech. They can be numbers – the 1st idea, the 2nd idea, etc.; they can be questions which offer good audience interaction; and, they can be phrases that underscore important points in your message.

Example: The most important thing I want you to gain from my presentation is that breathing with the support of your diaphragm will not only end vocal abuse but it will also mean a more confident, more mature-sounding speaking voice.

In the above statement, I have reiterated what I want my audience to remember but I have also let them know that I have come to the end of my development. While those words are not my concluding statement, they have paved the way for my conclusion.

2. Transitions

Transitions are words or phrases that mark the end of one thought or idea and move the speaker into another thought or idea by including material from the previous statement into the new one.

Example: Now that we have seen that the habitual voice can be affected by vocal abuse, allow me to explain how the situation can be reversed.

In the above sentence, the words in bold mark the transition, reinforcing my previous statements and paving the way for the new statement.

3. Internal Previews

Similar to the transition and often including a transition, the internal preview is found in the development of the speech or presentation and includes what is coming up in greater detail than the transition. The preview is in bold.

Example: Now that we have seen that the habitual voice can be affected by vocal abuse, the remedy is quite simple. Learn to breathe with the support of your diaphragm and allow your chests to power your voice.

Including the original transition, the internal preview consists of the statement which follows in bold.

4. Internal Summaries

Found also in the development of the speech or presentation, the internal summary is the opposite of the internal preview because it lists ever so briefly what has already been stated. These summaries are important because they reinforce what has already been said, making it easier for your audience to follow your message.

Example: In essence, by learning to breathe properly, finding the optimum pitch of your speaking voice, and allowing your chest to do the work, you will eliminate vocal abuse forever.

The above sentence summarizes succinctly what may have been discussed for the last 10, 20 or even 40 minutes of your delivery.

Using any and all of the above connectives in your delivery are very effective means of keeping your audience’s attention as well as keeping your talk organized. Use them and your listeners will remember more of what you have said.

Did You Know That There Are Many Famous People With ADHD Who Have Lead Productive Lives?

The Blue Color: Color Of Heaven

Yes, there are famous people with ADHD. Some have long since passed on into history but they have left their mark and we benefit from their contributions to the world and to society. Others are easily recognizable and are to be found in the acting and sports arenas, business world, etc. While there is still a stigma attached to anyone with a mental disorder it is worthwhile letting your child who has been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder know that they actually share the spotlight with some very notable and noteworthy individuals. Some have even gone so far as to suggest that schools display information in the form of posters regarding those celebrities and other famous people who have or had ADHD in a bid to eliminate the stigma associated with the disorder.

There are around ten million adults in the United States living with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD. Given the enormity of this number it really should come as no surprise that a significant number of those who are famous for whatever reason should also be included in that figure. When this disorder is not treated the individual will suffer with poor concentration and will struggle with being organized which can understandably lead to greater problems in the person’s life.

Roughly sixty percent of children in the country who are diagnosed with ADHD will continue to experience the associated symptoms even once they have attained adulthood. Alarmingly many children who are ADHD will remain undiagnosed with a number of them only getting diagnosed once they have reached middle age.

For children diagnosed with this disorder famous people with ADHD can really help them to cope better as they recognize themselves in these celebrities. For example the Olympic swimming champion, Michael Phelps has ADHD and he has been reported as saying that he oftentimes felt stigmatized while he was growing up. This was exacerbated by the fact that he had to collect his meds from the school nurse every day until eventually he convinced his mom to let him go off the medication. He used his competitiveness in the swimming pool to help him focus himself and attributes that with learning to manage his Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In fact it has been shown that ADHD kids very often benefit from participating in competitive sports.

Other famous people with ADHD include actors and actresses such as: Whoopi Goldberg, Tom Cruise, Will Smith, Dakota Fanning, Robin Williams, Sylvester Stallone, Jim Carrey, and so many more. Of course years ago it was not possible to diagnose ADHD and so there are many people in history who are believed to have had the disorder based upon written documentation that exists. Some famous people in history who are believed to have had Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder include Pablo Picasso, Alexander Graham Bell, Albert Einstein, Walt Disney, Christopher Columbus, Mozart, and Beethoven.

Having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is no reason to feel ashamed or inferior. In fact if your child has been diagnosed with the disorder it might be a good idea to let them discover just how many well-known and influential people have as well. When it comes to treating the symptoms of this common childhood disorder there are generally two schools of thoughts. One advocates the use of ADHD medication to control the symptoms while the other suggests a more natural approach involving dietary changes and homeopathic remedies. Considering the fact that many of the drugs used in treating the disorder are known to be rather dangerous and with harmful side-effects it is certainly advisable to consider the natural approach as your first course of action. By changing the diet of the ADHD child it has been shown to greatly improve the symptoms, allowing the child to function better and lead a normal and productive lifestyle. Teaching the child relaxation techniques as well as helping them to focus on some activity, such as a sport they enjoy, can greatly benefit them and help them to live life to the full.

Did You Know That There Are Many Famous People With ADHD Who Have Lead Productive Lives?

the lonely tree

Yes, there are many people with ADHD. Some have long since passed on into history but they have left their mark and we benefit from their contributions to the world and to society. Others are easily recognizable and are to be found in the acting and sports arenas, business world, etc. While there is still a stigma attached to anyone with a mental disorder it is worth giving your child who has been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder know that they actually share the spotlight with some very notable and noteworthy individuals. Some have even gone so far as to suggest that schools display information in the form of posters regarding those celebrities and other famous people who have or had ADHD in a bid to eliminate the stigma associated with the disorder.

There are around ten million adults in the United States living with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD. Given the strength of this number it really should come as no surprise that a significant number of those who are famous for whatever reason should also be included in that figure. When this disorder is not treated the individual will suffer with poor concentration and will struggle with being organized which can understandably lead to greater problems in the person's life.

Roughly sixty percent of children in the country who are diagnosed with ADHD will continue to experience the associated symptoms even once they have attained adulthood. Alarmingly many children who are ADHD will remain undiagnosed with a number of them only getting diagnosed once they have reached middle age.

For children diagnosed with this disorder famous people with ADHD can really help them to agree better as they recognize themselves in these celebrities. For example the Olympic swimming champion, Michael Phelps has ADHD and he has been reported as saying that he oftentimes felt stigmatized while he was growing up. This was exacerbated by the fact that he had to collect his meds from the school nurse every day until eventually he convinced his mom to let him go off the medication. He used his competitiveness in the swimming pool to help him focus himself and attributes that with learning to manage his Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In fact it has been shown that ADHD kids very often benefit from participating in competitive sports.

Other famous people with ADHD include actors and actresses such as: Whoopi Goldberg, Tom Cruise, Will Smith, Dakota Fanning, Robin Williams, Sylvester Stallone, Jim Carrey, and so many more. Of course years ago it was not possible to diagnose ADHD and so there are many people in history who are believed to have had the disorder based upon written documentation that exists. Some famous people in history who are believed to have had Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder include Pablo Picasso, Alexander Graham Bell, Albert Einstein, Walt Disney, Christopher Columbus, Mozart, and Beethoven.

Having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is no reason to feel ashamed or inferior. In fact if your child has been diagnosed with the disorder it might be a good idea to let them discover just how many well-known and influential people have as well. When it comes to treating the symptoms of this common childhood disorder there are generally two schools of thoughts. One advocates the use of ADHD medication to control the symptoms while the other suggests a more natural approach involving dietary changes and homeopathic remedies. Considering the fact that many of the drugs used in treating the disorder are known to be rather dangerous and with harmful side-effects it is certainly advisable to consider the natural approach as your first course of action. By changing the diet of the ADHD child it has been shown to greatly improve the symptoms, allowing the child to function better and lead a normal and productive lifestyle. Teaching the child relaxation techniques as well as helping them to focus on some activity, such as a sport they enjoy, can greatly benefit them and help them to live life to the full.

18 Types of Metaphors

MONTPARNASSE CEMETERY 9-21-2014 4-42-21 AM

The first extremely obvious question is – What is this darned metaphor? Another fancy name? Well… yes and no. It is fancy, but also effective. Charged with energy. Stuffed with genius. By definition, a metaphor is a figure of speech where two entirely dissimilar words or phrases are brought together to suggest a similarity. Confused? What are examples for?

All the world’s a stage

Yes, it’s Shakespeare and he is comparing the world to a stage. You generally don’t see the world as a stage, you see it… as the world, the earth, the mother; but not a stage. That is why it’s a metaphor. Because it has brought together two entirely unrelated things and made sense with it.

That was simple. But there is no peace, here starts the rollercoaster. (bet you won’t enjoy it right now)

1. Extended or telescoping metaphor or conceit

When your metaphoric insight has developed, then you cannot restrain yourself to just one metaphor. Like –

All the world’s a stage and men and women merely players.

This extension – “Men and women are merely players” has made this an extended metaphor. The author stretched “the world” and “a stage” by introducing parts of “the world” (men and women) and “a stage” (players). Of course, it has to make sense. You can’t extend it by comparing men and women to an ipod. Sounds distasteful? Exactly.

2. Metonym

When you’ve grown tired of clichéd words and are searching desperately for a word closely related to it that has not been used to death, that word is a metonym. A new word to replace an old one. Of course, an example. The pen is mightier than the sword. This saying in itself has become clichéd, but originally the thought was otherwise. Here, the pen stands for the freedom of expression and the sword for the power of authority. Now, if you said, freedom is greater than power, nobody would have said Wow. That’s why Pen and Sword instead of freedom and power.

3. Mixed metaphor

Some of us fail to create a good metaphor; such a twisted, out of tune metaphor is called a mixed metaphor.

The waves of emotion have punctured my heart.

Can waves puncture? They do in a nonsensical world, but most of us are still sane, but widely tolerable of nonsense and that is why such nonsense is given a modest name of mixed metaphor.

OK, for info’s sake – there are two kinds of mixed metaphors: permissible mixed metaphors and impermissible mixed metaphors. Never use impermissible ones, so that leaves me to explain only permissible ones.

Permissible mixed metaphors make sense even though the parts are not directly related.

We’ve weathered plenty of storms with an iron will.

There is no connection between weathering the storms and an iron will, still it sounds right.

4. Absolute metaphor

A perfect metaphor to show craziness and confusion. In an Absolute metaphor, the metaphor actually, really, truthfully, doesn’t make sense.

She broke upon a sad piece.

In today’s world of indistinctness, it is reigning absolute. Confuse them with your confusion.

There are two types of Absolute metaphor: Paralogical and antimetaphor.

5. Implied metaphor

Implied metaphor is an indirect metaphor where an implication to the whole is made.

Shut your trap.

He ruffled his feathers.

No bird and no mouth, just feathers and trap. Yeah, that’s implied.

6. Dead metaphor

Dead metaphors have been so overused that they have lost their individuality.

Face of the mountains

Crown of glory

Dead metaphors are mostly used as phrases and not as metaphors. Their association has died. Now, they are just phrases, although their names still remain. Take off your hats. It’s mourning time!

7. Dormant metaphor

Didn’t our teachers say that eating words in not good. Here it is again. When the meaning of a metaphor becomes unclear because the sentence has been shortened, then it is called a dormant metaphor.

He was blazing. (for whaat, if you please)

She flew towards her uncle. (why?)

They blew her off. (WHY?)

OK, it makes sense, but in itself, they don’t create the whole picture. Why chew words. Dormant, yes, they are sleeping. Hibernating. But still alive.

8. Synecdoche metaphor

The name looks scary, but it’s rather simple. In synecdoche metaphor, a part of the association is used instead of the object. For example feathers instead of bird or claws instead of crab. These associations are symbolic of the whole.

Her feet flapped like terrified wings.

9. Root metaphor

Root metaphors are named thus because from them numerous other metaphors can take birth. Also, they are generalizations like –

Time is money.

Make hay while the sun shines.

Etc etc.

10. Active metaphor

Active metaphors are new born so you will have to introduce them to the world. They are not familiar to the reader. That’s why it is better if they are explained clearly.

Her blinking love.

They mashed each other’s lives.

Any new metaphor that hasn’t been written before is an active metaphor.

11. Submerged metaphor

In a submerged metaphor, the first part of the metaphor or the vehicle is implied. For example: his winged dreams or her legged ambition.

12. Dying metaphor

It should have been named ‘rising from the dead metaphor’ or ‘the mummy metaphor’ because when you take out dead metaphors from the grave and use them in your writing, then they can’t be called dying. I don’t know what George Orwell was thinking when he coined the name. J Dying metaphors are clichéd metaphors like

Needle in a haystack

Achilles heel

A different ball game

13. Conceptual metaphor

This is hard, so read slowly. A conceptual metaphor has many metaphoric meanings in them. Their underlying meaning creates a novel thought or a universal concept. Life as journey is an old conceptual metaphor. This metaphor has universal appeal. It is not talking about a particular situation or a person. It stands true to every man.

Also, if you see life as a journey, then you can also use many other metaphors like

My life has just halted

I have reached crossroads.

I came into this world with no luggage.

So, Life is a journey is a conceptual metaphor.

14. Pataphor

Pataphors are metaphors that are stretched to such an extreme that they do not make sense. They are usually used to attract attention and introduce newness.

He put breaks on his fear, accelerated his anger and rammed into the house.

15. Simple or Tight metaphor

In simple metaphor, you don’t need to do much. Just cool it. There is nothing to cool except just it. On a serious note, in a simple metaphor, the relationship between the vehicle (cool) and the tenor (it) is very intimate (tight).

Duck (bow) down.

He is mad (crazy).

You’re a dinosaur (huge).

Usually, simple metaphors are very short. Just two or three words at most.

16. Implicit metaphor

Here, either the vehicle or the tenor is not specified clearly, but implied.

Shut your trap.

Watch your tongue.

Here, ‘trap’ and ‘tongue’ are used instead of mouth and words.

17. Compound or Loose metaphor

A compound metaphor is made of more than one similarity. In it, the writer extends a metaphor by using more than one association.

He ran towards the murderer, a wild beast with a beating heart.

The air smelt of fear, the fear of abandonment.

18. Complex metaphor

In a complex metaphor, you have a simple metaphor and his accomplice (not in crime). Instead of an explanation, an example would do better.

Let me throw some light on his character.

Here, “throw” is used for “light” that in itself is non-existent.

What Makes a Writer a Writer?

Meet The Real Dawn French - Photo a Day Project

An interesting discussion on LinkedIn is swirling around the topic of when a writer can call themselves a writer .. As I've watched the discussion unfold, some interesting ideas have cropped up. They are worth considering.

A writer is someone who has been published offline.

Considering that a large segment of the writing work available is almost exclusively online today, this definition just can not hold true. While it is almost guaranteed that someone who has broken into hard print is a very good writer, it does not preclude someone who has never had their work published in traditional media from being considered a writer.

A writer is someone who knows their grammar, punctuation rules and how to spell things correctly.

I'm not prepared to say this is true because I know that publishers, magazines and newspapers all hire copy editors for one very good reason. Not every writer on the team has good spelling skills. No writer's punctuation skills are perfect. And everyone has certain words they almost always type incorrectly. I've been a copy editor. It's always easier to see others mistakes.

For me, I have to watch dropping the "r" on your, adding a "d" in college and several other persistent misspellings. There are words I consistently add extra letters to and others I drop letters from almost every time I type them. And most of the time, they are words, so spell check does not catch them.

At the same time, if a writer can not tell the difference between when to use your and you're or its and it's, it will be an obstacle to achieving a higher pays scale. Excellence in every aspect of writing is essential if you want to be taken seriously.

A writer is a professional who makes a consistent income from writing.

This can be true. The definition of consistent may vary. I know that I began by approaching only a few hundred dollars a month from writing work. I had some months where I had no income from that source. At the same time, I was consistently seeking work. As a writing professional I took action.

  • I actively built my portfolio.
  • I built a free website on Office Live.
  • I focused on bridging the gap from when I studied journalism to what the market demands of writers today.
  • I applied every piece of knowledge I gained into strengthening my ability to write compelling materials.

To put the title "writer" on a resume, suggest you need to be more than someone who has started their own blog. Despite the fact that I have a ghostwriting tips blog, it is not this blog that makes me a writer. It's the fact that people read this blog and actually benefit from it that supports my claim that I am a writer.

A writer is someone who can explain different topics in language that the average person can understand.

This truly is a skill that not everyone possesses. In some ways, every writer needs to have a teacher's heart, the ability to break things down into understandable packages. Some writers are gifted with the ability to reach very young minds. That's why there are writers of children's books. Other writers just can not get down to that level, yet remain effective writers for a different audience.

A writer is more than someone who starts their own blog.

There are good blogs and so-so blogs. To truly claim to be a writer, the blog can not be riddled with grammar errors. A few spelling and punctuation errors are forgivable, especially as most blog writers can not afford a separate set of eyes to edit their work.

A writer is someone who crafts words to influence others.

It's the power to dig into the meaning of words and craft them as you have done that signifies a writer. The fact that you can express your arguments succinctly using words in their written form defines that you are a writer. Maybe that is the definition we should be holding to here. "A writer is someone who can write with words so effectively they can influence others whether they do it for pay or not."

It's not whether your work appears on the eviscerated remnants of a tree or on the electronic representation of a page that makes you a writer. It's whether your words move and / or motivate. A novelist may move through the creation of characters and plots. A web writer may motivate to action by carefully chosen words.

Both are writers. Both use their power over words to create an experience in the mind. That experience would not be there without the writer's ability to craft words.

What makes a writer a writer? We'll probably never be able to agree on a single definition. Too may people would disagree with the writer's version of the artist's definition, "A writer is a writer because he / she writes."