Tag: daily news

How Writers Can Benefit From the Short Story Market

Emotions In An Abstract 芳草碧連天 - Van Dusen 9583e

There are countless writers out there who dream of someday selling a novel manuscript and being able to make a full-time living as a professional writer or novelist. Just imagine being able to quit your day job and spend your time doing what you love, writing and editing your own manuscripts, attending book reading events, and promoting your work. Many professional writers eventually go on to receive a job as a creative writing professor at a local university, teaching students how to perfect their own craft. It’s a great dream, but unfortunately most amateur writers take the wrong approach to trying to get their work published and become a full-time professional writer. Here are a few tips about using the short story market to perfect your writing, get your name out there and eventually sell a novel manuscript.

First, let’s get a few things straight about publishing short stories. It’s definitely not glamorous, and there’s not a whole lot of money in it. Most literary magazines only give a few bucks to writers for the short stories they publish, so it isn’t going to make you rich. And their readership is usually very low, so you aren’t going to become famous by publishing short stories, either. Sure, there are a few exceptions to the rule that have huge readerships and give big payouts if they decide to publish your work, but getting your writing accepted there is extremely tough, even if you are a superb writer.

So, if the short story market pays so poorly and has such a low readership, why do we suggest that you go there first if you eventually want to become a novelist? Well, there are a three reasons. The first is that the short story market helps writers perfect their writing, and the feedback you receive from editors will help you become a better short story writer and novelist. The second is that it helps you get used to how to actually submit work to editors, and the process that is involved with getting published. And the third is that it will help you build up your writing resume. A publishing company is much more likely to read a manuscript from a writer who has been published in several literary magazines, even if they were small publications.

There is also another reason why getting published in small literary magazines is good for the new writer, and that is it helps bolster your own self esteem as a writer. Even if it is a small literary magazine, there’s nothing like the feeling of seeing your work in print for the first time. When an editor makes a conscious decision to choose your writing over the work of someone else, and publishes it in his magazine, it is a great encouragement. You’ll be able to share your published work with friends and colleagues, and it will make you feel much more legitimate as a writer.

So if you want to be the next great novelist, don’t be afraid to explore the short story market before taking a stab at your first novel. It will help you become a better writer, learn about the submission and publication process, and help you build up a solid resume for potential publishers to look at the next time you submit your writing.

Change the World

13 bedroom Cross Creek

We are capable of changing the world, Farrukh told me while I sunk in the depth of my thoughts. He started nonstop talking without realizing where he is sitting and what he is saying. Without spending time with him, I moved away.

At that time I realized he was right because people like us are capable of changing the world but may be he even do not know why only we and not others. While I was moving away, Farrukh was continuing saying insignificant and stupid sentences. I observed that he is not a normal human he is essentially abnormal because he has more emotions in him which is flowing in the ridiculous way and he always talk more than normal because he eject his extra emotions in the form of words. The people having more emotions also have more potential and ability to change others. If you list the people who influenced the people of the world, you find that these people had extra emotions. In addition, these people utilize their extra emotions in a very positive way by speaking, writing, poetry, art etc.

The best example is of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the ex-prime minister of Pakistan who changed the minds of millions peoples in Pakistan, had extra emotions in him but he utilized those emotions in his debt. Whenever I asked about him from his fans, they told that he was a great speaker. He influenced on the psychic of the people by his speaking power however, such persons are even more practical than others. I am the fan of the famous columnist, Javed Chaudhary. I read most of his columns and I realized that he is also an emotional person but utilizing his emotions in the form of valuable words.

Every person of the world possesses emotions but its level varies in each individual. The level by which we identify elevated emotions is the habits and acts one show during its normal life. I analyzed that poets, writers and artists come under this category but they are utilizing their elevated emotions in a positive way. The extra emotions need to eject out, it flows, and no one stops its way. The most concerned thing is the way that it flows out from one's acts. It is something like water, which is flowing towards the unspecified way, but you manage to divert its position towards right path but can not stop the flow. If a person utilizes its emotions in a very right and positive manner then it will make a difference however, its flow in wrong direction produces ruin, terrible and harmful personalities.

Whenever I see emotional peoples, I start thinking that emotions changes the world but that change is always unidirectional.

Is the Shroud of Turin Medieval? History Tells a Different Story

Údolí Labe

In 1988 the Shroud of Turin entered into a period of its history as dark and gloomy as an approaching hurricane. This would be a storm of bad press and negative opinion. The Shroud was a fake as determined by three carbon dating labs. The party was over. Seven years earlier, in 1981, hopes were high as the Shroud of Turin Research Project announced their results after five days with the cloth and three years analyzing the data. Their results electrified the world with possibility. The Shroud was not the work of an artist and the blood was genuine. Could the Shroud be authentic? Is that even possible?

Not corresponding to the carbon dating labs. Science had spoken and science is never wrong. I dedicate this article to the memory of the late Paul Harvey, the great radio newscaster who became famous with his phrase, "Now you know the rest of the story."

In 1985, twenty-two scientists gathered together at a hotel in Norway to discuss the protocol of how carbon dating of the Shroud would be conducted. Perhaps a little ambitious, but it was agreed that seven different labs would be included, four would use the older technology of proportional counter and three would use the newer nuclear accelerator technology. The tests would be blind while the labs involved would not know which sample was a control or from the Shroud. Lastly, and most importantly, they would cut at least three different locations on the Shroud to balance any skew from potential contamination. This is what was expected to happen.

Now for the rest of the story. Luigi Gonella was the scientific advisor chosen by the Catholic Church to oversee the whole affair. It was his decision to limit the number of labs to three from the original seven. That alone was not earth shattering, seven was probably overkill anyway. But the real mistake was far more than a simple error; it was a colossal blunder and one that would forever leave the Shroud marred with uncertainty. As the leaders of the three labs representing Oxford, Zurich and Tucson gathered around the revered cloth to determine where to cut for their dating samples, Luigi's scientist hat fell to the floor revealing another hat full of Catholic piety. Instead of cutting three different locations on the cloth, Luigi decided on only one location, one that was adjacant to an area cut in 1973 for textile analysis by Gilbert Raes. Why there? It would look pretty. The most significant carbon dating event of the twenty century was determined by aesthetics instead of sound methodology.

In Luigi's defense, there are indications that he was pressured to ignore the sampling protocol by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in Rome and the Centro Internazionale di Sindonologia in Turin. This may be so, but he will always bear the blame for this blunder.

What happened? Instead of three samples, only one was cut. And where was it cut? From the most handled part of the cloth, the very corner that was grabbed and held hundreds of times over the centuries as the Shroud was thought out and held horizontally by Church officials for thousands to see. It was even thought out numerous times to bless royal weddings as it was owned by the royal Savoy family for over 400 years.

So not only was the carbon test limited to just one sample, it was also taken from the very location any archaeologist would have avoided like the swine flu. Is there a problem with the sample? X-ray radiography of the sample area shows a higher density of threads for some reason. Another clue came from chemist Dr. Alan Adler in 1996. He noticed that the spectrographic data from that corner did not match up with the rest of the cloth suggesting a different chemical composition. In 2003 chemist Ray Rogers obtained thread samples from the same corner cut for carbon dating and compared them with threads taken from the main body of the cloth. Rogers confirmed through chemistry the suspicions raised by the other tests. His work was published in a peer reviewed scientific journal in 2005. The corner was not homogenous. It was different; in fact it was radically different.

The presence of starch, cotton and madder root dye all suggested some kind of repair. What? The corner was repaired? When? How? It does not make any sense. Would not Luigi and others have noticed the difference? Not if it was done by the skilled French weavers who specialized in "invisible mending." In the late middle ages, weavers in France had formed a craft guild and were noted for restoring tapestries, curtains and fine clothing to their original condition. Were they employed to repair the Shroud? There is no written account to document this occurrence but the smoking gun is plainly evident. Cotton was used to affect a repair of the frayed corner because it easily absorbs dye. The dye was used to blend in the new cotton threads with the heavily yellowed threads of the Shroud, and lastly starch was used to stiffen the cotton threads as they were meticulously woven into the corner. What else could account for these anomalous substances to be found in that precise corner?

Luigi's colossal blunder leaves us now. With the legalimacy of the carbon dating sample clearly in question, it has to be dismissed as being inconclusive. If the Shroud was any other non-descript artifact from some obscure archaeological site, it would simply be dated again. Not so with the Shroud, twenty-one years have passed since the first carbon dating tests and still no discussion of repeating the tests.
It looks like the historians who must take center stage now to answer one of the central questions around the Shroud. Is it medieval? If not, how old is it?

This article can not tackle the Shroud's entire history. However, it would be instructive to see if the history of the cloth pre-dates the identical carbon date range of 1260 to 1390. The labs determined with a "95% confidence" that the oldest date would be 1260 with the youngest at 1390. At least we know that it was not the work of Leonardo da Vinci who was born a little late-1452 -less of course he invented time travel.

One of the historical challenges has been to bridge all the gaps with clear documentation. Historians lament over the severe lack of documents with regard to almost any person or event dating back more than a couple hundred years. Gaps are filled by inference and context. With the Shroud, one such gap exists between 1204 and 1356. We have a clear historical trail from its arrival in Lirey, France when it was first exhibited until today.

What happened in 1204? This year marks the lowest point of Christian history when crusaders from Venice and France invaded Constantinople, the center of Eastern Christianity. It was considered the richest city on earth and was proud of its collection of relics including the crown of thorns and "most sacred of all, the linen in which our Lord Jesus Christ was wrapped." This was how it was represented in a letter written to Pope Innocent III in 1205 protesting the invasion. We know from other references that this linen contained an image-much like the Shroud. The city was looted and burned. Almost every relic now claimed by some cathedral in France, Spain or Italy can trace its roots to Constantinople. Where did the Shroud go? A document reveals that it was taken to Athens and was seen there in 1207. Four documents now attest to this. Who had it? It had become the possession of a prominent crusader, Othon de la Roche of Burgundy. He was man of wealth and position and was instrumental in the successful sacking of Constantinople. In return for his service, he was awarded Athens as a fiefdom and became the Duke of Athens and was awarded several relics as payment including the Shroud. However his political reign was short lived due to a run-in with the Pope and in 1230 he returned to his castle at Ray-sur-Saône in Burgundy. Kept in one of the towers to this day is a collection of items taken from Constantinople. One of the most important items is a wooden chest with the inscription, "13th century coffer in which was preserved in Ray Castle the Shroud of Christ bought by Othon de Ray from Constantinople-1206." There is some confusion as to whether the inscription reflects to Othon or his son who is known as Othon de Ray. It severely matters. The point is we know the whereabouts of the Shroud in 1230; it was in Burgundy, France.

Now we must move forward 120 years to 1350. This is when Jean de Vergy, the great great granddaughter of Othon de la Roche was to marry a prominent French knight, Geoffrey de Charney. Jean was living in Besancon, France-about a hundred miles from Burgundy. She is recorded to have the Shroud and is kept in Besancon Castle outside the city. Records indicate it was exhibited occasionally at Saint Stevens Cathedral during Easter. The same year as their marriage, the cathedral burned. In 1353, Jean de Vergy and Geoffrey de Charney move to Lirey where Geoffrey builds a church but passes away in 1356. That same year, Jean de Vergy holds the first public exhibition of the Shroud in Geoffrey's honor. A pilgrim's medal is cast showing the Shroud's unique double image with the crest of both families represented. Historians have pieced together through inference and context that Jean de Vergy was the rightful owner of the Shroud as a direct descendant of Othon de la Roche and presented the relic as part of her dowry to Geoffrey when they married.

The years between 1230 when we know it was in Burgundy and 1350 when Jean de Vergy is known to possess it, is when it may have been held by the Knights Templar for safe keeping. A recent document unearthed in the Vatican archives by historian Barbara Fraale reveals the testimony in 1287 of a young recruit to the order who is brought into a secret sanctuary where he is shown a long linen cloth bearing the bearded image of a man and is required to kiss the feet three times. It is more than curious that another Geoffrey de Charney was burned at the stake in 1314 along with Jacque de Molay. They were the two leaders of the Knights Templar who were charged with heresy, that they worshiped a mysterious image. Is it a coincidence that another Geoffrey de Charney, a direct descendant of the executed Templar would marry the rightful heir of the Shroud, Jean de Vergy thirty-six years later? Wow! Writers pay attention. Looking for a story fraught with intrigue, secrets, scandal and betrayal? You just found it.

What does all this mean? Look at the dates … 1205, 1207, 1230 all clearly predating the earliest carbon date of 1260. We have clear possession of the cloth by Othon and his descendants. The most important aspect to this history is this-if we can link the Shroud of Turin to what disappeared during the Fourth Crusade; we suddenly have a documented trail dating back to the sixth century! The history of the cloth that was described as "most sacred of all" began in 525 and disappeared in 1204.

Is there any other way to bridge the gap between 1204 and 1356? There is-and it is the most significant one of all. About thirty years ago an important picture was discovered within the pages of the Hungarian Pray Manuscript. This was the first book ever written and bound in the Hungarian language. Inside is a picture showing two distinct scenes. Scene one shows Jesus laid out on his burial cloth showing only four fingers and no thumbs-same as the Shroud. Scene two shows the cloth wrapped around Jesus with a face image crudely showing that the cloth contains an image. Here is the clincher; the picture also shows an "L" shaped pattern of burn holes exactly as we see them on the Shroud. Lastly, the picture clearly portraits the distinct herringbone pattern weave of the Shroud. It could not be any clearer. This picture dating from 1192 is depicting the Shroud that was kept in Constantinople and is the same cloth that resides in Turin today. There can now be no mistake as to what disappeared in 1204 and later given to Othon de la Roche.

Is the Shroud medieval? Not a chance. As long as we keep pretending the carbon date is somehow accurate since the bad sample, we will continue to look for the identical medieval artist who created it. If you are looking for the artist, start looking in the sixth century. However, do not look too hard because there is evidence that takes it to the third century too. Does it go all the way back to first century? Only if you believe in legends-but every legend has a kernel of truth. Now you know the rest of the story. I think Paul Harvey is smiling.

Homeschool and Actors

Serna, Ismael de la (1897-1968) - 1931 Violin Still Life

Everyone has seen the struggles associated with being a child actor or a child star. The nature of this lifestyle causes many of these youngsters to suffer from delays in everything from their academics to their social and emotional development, and as a result, many end up struggling as adults. Because of this, it is extremely important that these children be given every opportunity to develop their skills and talents beyond those associated with the small or silver screens.

One of the most effective and popular choices for actors to use in helping them develop proper academic skills and complete their education is to use homeschooling. Homeschooling is a popular choice because of the flexibility that it offers, both in terms of when and how lessons can be taught. Actors who are being homeschooled can complete lessons online, or they can actually have their “teachers” show up to their work and deliver a lesson personally. Either way, it is difficult to argue with the fact that homeschooling, especially for actors, is very convenient.

The acting business being what it is means that student/actors have to have teachers work around their schedule. It is mostly for this reason that student/actors and their parents choose to turn to homeschooling or an accredited distance learning school. Some actors are on the road and way from home for months at a time, making it very difficult for them to attend traditional school. Homeschooling can allow academic curriculum to be individually tailored, and designed not to interfere with the requirements of an acting career.

Homeschooling is also an effective way of completing school sooner. Rather than try to complete a diploma or degree in the traditional length of time, meaning 4 to 6 years, a homeschooling curriculum can allow child actors to complete their education faster and more efficiently, as opposed to having it drag on over the course of several years.

Homeschooling actors and stars is certainly not something new. In fact, some of the most famous people in history, including presidents, inventors, artists, actors, and athletes have all been homeschooled. President George Washington, inventor Thomas Edison, actor Charlie Chaplin, and scientist Albert Einstein are just a few of the famous people who have reaped the benefits of homeschooling.

Things can be difficult enough at work for the child actor without having to add additional stress from having to make time for school. By using homeschooling as an option, parents can provide their children with an effective learning curriculum without having to interfere with their acting career. In addition to the added convenience as well as the obvious flexibility associated with homeschooling, child actors can also benefit from the additional family support that they receive when they are being taught by their parents. There is nothing that can be more beneficial to a young actor than to have family members who are actually involved in an important aspect of their life, and homeschooling is certainly one effective way of accomplishing this, both for academic and emotional purposes.

10 Things That You Can Do While Writing Novels With Software That You Can not Manually

Lake Saiful Muluk

Here are some reasons why you should software when writing a novel:

1. It has a built-in dictionary that you can use when you are searching for the right words for your novel.
2. With its spelling and grammar checker, you can finish your novel in a faster way because it has auto correct wherein while you are typing the program will tell you if you have a wrong spelling or wrong gram which does not agree with sentence construction .
3. It will assist you with your story setting / plot, characters and events.
4. The program will give suggestions once you type the title of your novel, it will give character name suggestions that will be very convenient for writers because it is sometimes hard to think of character names that will capture the readers.
5. Having software for book writing novel is like having your own personal assistant.
6. When you write a novel manually, it is possible that you research through the Internet, but with the help of software it will store your research so if ever you need to check again you do not have to go online and research again.
7. Will help with the flow of the story, when you write a novel manually, it is normal that you lose the flow of the story because of distractions. But with the help of software, it will help you to be back on track with the flow of your story.
8. The software will guide you with your novel writing.
9. The software will be giving meaningful results that will help you finish your story faster.
10. It will spark more creativity in your work.

Using software is very convenient and it will make you work on your novel easier and finish the novel faster. It does not necessarily mean that you should use the software but it is highly-recommended for novel writers. A lot of famous writers are using software like JK Rowling, and look at her now. Her masterpiece made a big hit and is topping off the shelves in all the bookstores worldwide. It is time for you to try using software and make a novel that will surely wow your readers.

What Is a Copywriter? Much More Than You Might Think

The pond

What is a copywriter?

It's the person who wrote this article. It's the person who wrote that radio commercial that you hate. It's the person who wrote that radio commercial that you love. It's the people who write those little Google ads that you see all over the web (maybe even right next to this!).

A considerable percentage of the "news articles" you read in your local paper are actually marketing messages – and yes, they were written by copywriters.

The TV commercials that you've watched (or that you've not watched if you're as quick with the remote as me) were written by copywriters.

The gazillions of billboards that cling to our roadways like ticks to a dog – yep, mostly written by copywriters.

All of those magazine ads packed into your favorite glossy – copywriters.

The text on the packaging of most every product you buy, whether it's your favorite brand of chips or your preferred type of toothpaste – copywriters.

The text on the menus at your favorite restaurant – copywriters.

The product slogans that became famous and stay in your head for a lifetime …

  • "Just Do It"
  • "Melts in Your Mouth; Not in Your Hands"
  • "A Little Dab'll Do Ya" (you remember this one if you're as old as me)
  • "Got Milk?"
  • "Do not Fiddle With the Middle"
  • "EAT MOR CHIKIN"
  • "Eat Fresh"

… all written by copywriters. Good copywriters!

The person who SEO'd the web copy on your company's website to help search engines found you was a copywriter (someone did do that, right?)

Many of the sentences you've heard in your lifetime – copywriters.

I could go on and on, but you get the idea.

Most likely, you never get through a day without being exposed multiple times to the work of copywriters. And do not think that the work of copywriters does not work on you; it does.

The massive amount of marketing copy that we're all exposed to in our lifetimes affects each of us on some level, and influences us to some degree. That's why copy is so critically important to both and every business.

Great copy can help your business to soar; bad copy can be grievously damaging.

What is a Copywriter? It's You!

Not only have you been exposed to the work of copywriters every day of your life, you've probably also been a copywriter on many occasions.

Did you ever:

  • Compose any form of business correspondence? You were a copywriter.
  • Write a classified ad to place in the newspaper advertising a car, an old washing machine, a garage sale, or whatever? You were a copywriter.
  • Carefully craft a letter of introduction to accompany your resume when applying for a job? You were a copywriter.

Marketing copy is most commonly thought of as the work of professional copywriters. But in reality, any form of communication in which words are written with the goal of persuading or encouraging a desired action could be considered copywriting.

What is a Copywriter? It's the Person Who'll Have a Hand in Making or Breaking Your Business

The copy that your business presents to the world is the face of your company. If it's good, your business will reap the rewards – and not only tangible rewards such as increased sales, but also intangibles such as goodwill and esteem.

But if the 'face' your business presents to the world is drab and dull, lifeless and listless, then you can expect your prospective customers to respond with corresponding levels of enthusiasm.

And if your copy is REALLY bad – and you know there's lots of it out there, and you know how you've reacted to it – then "woe be unt ye."

So even if you're not a 'professional' copywriter, if you write any of the copy for your business, you'd be good at it!

10 Things That You Can Do While Writing Novels With Software That You Can not Manually

Qoʻqon UZ - Dakhmai-Shokhon 02

Here are some reasons why you should software when writing a novel:

1. It has a built-in dictionary that you can use when you are searching for the right words for your novel.
2. With its spelling and grammar checker, you can finish your novel in a faster way because it has auto correct wherein while you are typing the program will tell you if you have a wrong spelling or wrong gram which does not agree with sentence construction .
3. It will assist you with your story setting / plot, characters and events.
4. The program will give suggestions once you type the title of your novel, it will give character name suggestions that will be very convenient for writers because it is sometimes hard to think of character names that will capture the readers.
5. Having software for book writing novel is like having your own personal assistant.
6. When you write a novel manually, it is possible that you research through the Internet, but with the help of software it will store your research so if ever you need to check again you do not have to go online and research again.
7. Will help with the flow of the story, when you write a novel manually, it is normal that you lose the flow of the story because of distractions. But with the help of software, it will help you to be back on track with the flow of your story.
8. The software will guide you with your novel writing.
9. The software will be giving meaningful results that will help you finish your story faster.
10. It will spark more creativity in your work.

Using software is very convenient and it will make you work on your novel easier and finish the novel faster. It does not necessarily mean that you should use the software but it is highly-recommended for novel writers. A lot of famous writers are using software like JK Rowling, and look at her now. Her masterpiece made a big hit and is topping off the shelves in all the bookstores worldwide. It is time for you to try using software and make a novel that will surely wow your readers.

Technical Writing – What’s a Reading Level Anyway?

the lonely tree

“The art of art, the glory of expression and the sunshine of the light of letters, is simplicity.”

Walt Whitman, 1819-1892, American Poet

The client said, “We want this written at a 10th-grade reading level.” I said, “What’s a 10th-grade reading level and how is it measured?” The client said, “Hey, will you look at the time! I have to leave right now.”

Similar experiences on a number of occasions made me think that people use the phrase reading level without actually knowing what it means. They read it somewhere and think they sound smarter if they can toss it into the conversation. That sent me on a quest to find out what it means and how it’s measured. Here’s what I found out.

First, this is an important issue, and one that’s not well understood or carefully considered by many clients and the tech writers who work for them. For writers with a lot of experience who write for a wide range of audiences, it becomes instinctive. They know their audiences. They know how to write in a way that the readers can understand. They make adjustments for the specific audience they’re writing for. For writers new to the business or with experience writing for a limited audience, it can be a problem when they need to write for an audience they’re not familiar with.

Next, when people say something is written at a tenth-grade reading level the target audience’s ability to read that concerns us. Someone could read “Uber der Welt so hoch” and still not understand it. The goal is to write in a way that the target audience can comprehend. That involves using vocabulary and sentence structure that fits the reading comprehension level of the audience. , it’s a misnomer. What they really mean is that it’s written at a tenth grade comprehension level or what’s called a readability level. It’s not

Finally, the good news. Readability can be measured. The experts in the field of linguistics know what a tenth-grade readability level is and how it’s different from another level. It’s not an exact science, but it’s well enough developed that it can be used by writers to help them hit the mark with more accuracy. We won’t get into the really technical aspects of the subject, but we’ll provide enough background and illustrations that you’ll know how to find out more about it.

Readability Formulas

Readability formulas are used to determine if a document is written at the right comprehension level for the target audience. There are a number of readability formulas used by various linguistic groups. For now, we’re going to focus on the Gunning’s Fog Index because it’s one of the most famous and one any writer can use. The index was developed by Robert Gunning in 1952. The basic idea is that the bigger the words and the more complex the sentences, the more difficult it is to understand the document. Small words and short sentences are still the easiest to understand.

For convenience, the Fox Index levels equates to the number of years of formal education a reader needs to understand the material. By the way, this is based on the American system of twelve elementary and high school grades with the number of years of college education numbered thirteen and up. A high school education is a level 12. A master’s degree would be about a level 16.

To put this in perspective, a typical big-city newspaper is written at a level 7 or 8. The belief in most industries is that anything above a level 12 is too hard for most readers to understand. Remember, the Fox Index is not an absolute measure. It is, though, when used over a range of samples, a very good indicator. Here are some Fox Index levels for popular publications.

Atlantic Monthly = 12

Newsweek = 10

Reader’s Digest = 9

True Confessions = 7

Most comic books = 6

(This article = 11.6)

The Fog Index Applied

Here is an example of the same information written at two different readability levels as measured by the Fog Index.

Example One: Untold numbers of eternally optimistic individuals buy lottery tickets with odds in the multimillions against their chances of realizing success. They’re sustained by a level of ignorance that keeps them from recognizing that the likelihood that such an unrealistic eventuality would actually occur is of an order of magnitude beyond their capacity to comprehend. They cling to the notion that if an event is possible it certainly must happen regardless of how great the statistical chances are against it. Their cry is always, “Well, somebody’s got to win,” which is sufficient to block even the brightest glare of the cold light of reason.

The level is arrived at by counting the number of words, the number of sentences, and the number of three-syllable, or longer, words. Then a formula is applied that gives the readability index level. In this example, there are 103 words, 4 sentences, and 20 three-syllable words. Using the formula, the Fog Index level is 18. That means the reader should probably have a doctorate to ensure comprehension.

Example Two: A lot of people who never give up hope buy lottery tickets even though the odds against them ever winning are enormous. What keeps them buying tickets is that they aren’t able to understand that the odds against them are so great that they can’t really expect to win. They believe that because something is possible, then it must happen no matter what the odds against it are. Saying, “Well, somebody’s got to win,” is enough to keep them from seeing the reality of the situation.

Using the same method, the 86 words, 4 sentences, and 6 three-syllable words in this example give a Fog Index level of 11. That’s a high school junior.

Now You Try It

Pick a text sample from a source you’re familiar with. It helps if it’s a fairly big block of text. The larger the sample, the more accurate the index figure is. For example, I selected two blocks of text from the guide that came with my Nikon camera. Follow me through the process:

1. Count the number of words in the sample. If there are hyphenated words, count each part as one word.

(My count: 120) (Your count: )

2. Count the number of sentences in the sample.

(My count: 5) (Your count: )

3. Count the number of big words in the sample: 3 or more syllables.

(My count: 3) (Your count: )>

4. Calculate the average sentence length. To do this, divide the number of words by the number of sentences. For example, 120 divided by 5.

(My number: 24) (Your number: )

5. Calculate the percentage of big words. To do this, divide the number of big words by the total number of words. For example, 3 divided by 120 = .02 = 2%.

(My number: 2) (Your number: )

6. Add the average sentence length to the % of big words.

(My number: 26) (Your number: )

7. Multiply the result by 0.4.

Fog Index (My level: 10th grade) (Your level: )

Now try it on something you’ve written. From what you know about your audience, does your Fog Index match with the readers’ comprehension level? It’s a very important question, and this formula can help you answer it.

For more information on readability formulas, use any search engine to find sites related to readability formulas, Passive Index, Flesch-Kincaid Index, or Lexical Density Test.

Did You Know That There Are Many Famous People With ADHD Who Have Lead Productive Lives?

Evangeline

Yes, there are famous people with ADHD. Some have long since passed on into history but they have left their mark and we benefit from their contributions to the world and to society. Others are easily recognizable and are to be found in the acting and sports arenas, business world, etc. While there is still a stigma attached to anyone with a mental disorder it is worthwhile letting your child who has been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder know that they actually share the spotlight with some very notable and noteworthy individuals. Some have even gone so far as to suggest that schools display information in the form of posters regarding those celebrities and other famous people who have or had ADHD in a bid to eliminate the stigma associated with the disorder.

There are around ten million adults in the United States living with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD. Given the enormity of this number it really should come as no surprise that a significant number of those who are famous for whatever reason should also be included in that figure. When this disorder is not treated the individual will suffer with poor concentration and will struggle with being organized which can understandably lead to greater problems in the person’s life.

Roughly sixty percent of children in the country who are diagnosed with ADHD will continue to experience the associated symptoms even once they have attained adulthood. Alarmingly many children who are ADHD will remain undiagnosed with a number of them only getting diagnosed once they have reached middle age.

For children diagnosed with this disorder famous people with ADHD can really help them to cope better as they recognize themselves in these celebrities. For example the Olympic swimming champion, Michael Phelps has ADHD and he has been reported as saying that he oftentimes felt stigmatized while he was growing up. This was exacerbated by the fact that he had to collect his meds from the school nurse every day until eventually he convinced his mom to let him go off the medication. He used his competitiveness in the swimming pool to help him focus himself and attributes that with learning to manage his Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In fact it has been shown that ADHD kids very often benefit from participating in competitive sports.

Other famous people with ADHD include actors and actresses such as: Whoopi Goldberg, Tom Cruise, Will Smith, Dakota Fanning, Robin Williams, Sylvester Stallone, Jim Carrey, and so many more. Of course years ago it was not possible to diagnose ADHD and so there are many people in history who are believed to have had the disorder based upon written documentation that exists. Some famous people in history who are believed to have had Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder include Pablo Picasso, Alexander Graham Bell, Albert Einstein, Walt Disney, Christopher Columbus, Mozart, and Beethoven.

Having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is no reason to feel ashamed or inferior. In fact if your child has been diagnosed with the disorder it might be a good idea to let them discover just how many well-known and influential people have as well. When it comes to treating the symptoms of this common childhood disorder there are generally two schools of thoughts. One advocates the use of ADHD medication to control the symptoms while the other suggests a more natural approach involving dietary changes and homeopathic remedies. Considering the fact that many of the drugs used in treating the disorder are known to be rather dangerous and with harmful side-effects it is certainly advisable to consider the natural approach as your first course of action. By changing the diet of the ADHD child it has been shown to greatly improve the symptoms, allowing the child to function better and lead a normal and productive lifestyle. Teaching the child relaxation techniques as well as helping them to focus on some activity, such as a sport they enjoy, can greatly benefit them and help them to live life to the full.

Renaissance and Neoclassical Historical Arts

Belmont House

Renaissance is a cultural movement that started in Europe during the early 14th to 17th century or a period between the Classical and Modern era. More than its cultural essence, the Renaissance period was known for its developments in art, painting, philosophy, architecture and other intellectual aspects. It was an era that witnessed the largest growth and development in Western Europe.

A1. Renaissance art took its shape from the social conditions that existed at that time that carved Europe’s political structure. The cultural rarity of Italy existed, as there was no political form during the early modern period that resulted in artistic and academic advancements. This freedom opened gateways to trade and commerce across the globe that brought wealth in Italy through commissioning its artistic work.

Renaissance artists looked for human emotions and realism in art. They focused on making human portrays with a natural background. They took the Humanism approach, placing more emphasis on man than god, which was reflected in their sculptures and paintings. The Early Renaissance period focused more on creating sculptures on the basis of personality and behavior, whereas the High Renaissance was more towards balance and drama. Renaissance artists were greatly inspired by Roman and Greek art that used nude human bodies of personality in their art. Their attempt to gain perfection in human arts for expression, personality, and emotions reduced social hierarchies in the status of people resulting in everybody wanting to learn and share their ideas and skills.

A2. Neoclassicism was a predominant movement during the mid 18th century and the late 19th century in European art and architecture. It focused on the western classical art forms of ancient Greece and Rome. It was partly a movement that had initiated as a reaction to the Baroque and Rococo styles. It became a predominant part of academic art that continued into the 19th century to become visible as museums of neoclassical architecture.

Neoclassical art aimed in reviving the European Age of Enlightenment that was the Greek and Roman classical art forms. It aimed to contain the ‘purity’ of Roman arts and criticized Baroque and Rococo styles. Neoclassicism gained importance in France and England spreading towards Sweden. It made use of the classical essence relating to courage and nationalism.

Neoclassicism aimed to resurge classical styles through usage of sharp colors and classical subjects. They avoided light and soft colors in their paintings that depicted calmness and grandeur. Neoclassicists revived the Greek painting styles by using mosaics, columns, engravings and other ornamental elements in their work.

A3. Renaissance signified the rebirth of arts, science, and medicine and was an era that was responsible for most radical developments and movements in Europe. So much so, that it is also used to describe other major cultural and historical moments. Classical Renaissance gave birth to the Baroque style that was more dramatic and direct. Therefore Neoclassicism was nothing but a reaction to the Baroque style so as to preserve the purity of ancient Roman arts. Moreover, neoclassicism remained one of the foremost in academic arts.

A3a.

  • Renaissance period was known for its Humanist approach in art while neoclassical art focused on more classical and pure elements of style;
  • The Renaissance period brought about radical developments in arts, philosophy, and medicine while neoclassical art was foremost in academic arts;
  • Renaissance artists believed in more natural and expressive nude sculptures of art while neoclassical artists incorporated ornamental elements in their work;
  • The Renaissance period opened gateways to new ideas and developments, while the neoclassicism period focused on retaining the Age of Enlightenment.

A3b. The Renaissance era was one of the most influential and flourishing period during the 15th and 16th centuries and gave birth to major cultural developments for almost three centuries. Renaissance art was born out of an evolving civilization whose quest for Realism and scientific perfection resulted in some of the greatest works and achievement in arts, science, architecture, and philosophy. The distinguishing feature of Renaissance art is its dedication to classical arts with a renewed interest in Roman styles that included naked human sculptures with no landscapes in a natural environment. It was an important era that brought wealth to Europe and its artistic freedom enabled skilled artisans to flourish.

A3b1. Leonardo Da Vinci

Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) was one of the greatest artists of the Renaissance period. Also known as the ‘Renaissance Man’, was born in Italy and was a renowned painter who became a polymath in many fields such as music, science, mathematics, and botany. He is considered as one of the greatest diversely talented persons to have lived. Mona Lisa is one of the most renowned works of his time that was greatly appreciated. The Mona Lisa is a 16th century half-length portrait that was made in oil and of a seated woman.

Andrea Appiani (1754-1817) Born in Milan, was an Italian neoclassical painter. He trained under Carlo Maria Giudici and learnt painting by copying sculptures. His best works are in the church of San Maria presso San Celso and the royal palace at Milan. Among some of his works of oil paintings are Venus and Love, and Rinaldo in the garden of Armida.

A3b2. Madame Hamelin (1776-1851) was one of the neoclassical painter Andrea Appiani’s work that bears a similar resemblance to Leonardo Da Vinci’s Monal Lisa. Both are half-length oil portraits of women who are half-seated that reflects the natural facial expressions wherein their hands are folders bearing similar artistic values and styles to one another.

A3c. Neoclassicism reached its most influential period in arts during the 1780s to 1850s. New archeological discoveries and settings paved the way for classical themes that also resulted from the reaction of the Rococo styles. Neoclassicism retained its classical antiquity and co-existed with its much opposite form of Romanticism art. Artists of the neoclassical era replaced religious and mythological objects with realistic, simple, and bold ones. IN the 1830s, the Neoclassicism era was replaced by Romanticism.