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The Purpose of the Science Fiction Novel

Sissinghurst Castle and Garden - As Beautiful Without as They Are Within!

Where fantasy goes into uncharted territory, the kind of story that could not exist, science fiction, a term made famous by the likes of Philip K. Dick, Isaac Asimov, and Robert Heinlein, goes into charted territory. Let's make sense of that last statement: Science fiction is based on truths, questions of reality, and questions of survival. Its purpose is to go where other fiction can not. Unlike horror, it tells something far more dangerous because it could happen. Unlike mystery, there is not always someone at the other end of the gun, maybe "something" instead. Like mainstream work, it proposes fascinating philosophies on mankind in the past, present, and future.

When reporters talked of space stations maybe they were onto something. When Star Trek characters could talk to each other on small, hand-held phones, most thought it was too good to be true. Now we have cell phones, computers that can talk, computers that can think in some ways, and a variety of other ideas that were often suggested in science fiction.

But the science fiction novel has its own place outside of the realm of Star Trek and Star Wars. For one, the legend must be created in words, not film or TV images. Second, the writers behind it are often as much philosophers as authors. Lastly, science fiction is its own frontier, a place for free thinking.

The thesis for all this would be that the science fiction novel engages a reader in a "This is how it could happen." The purpose is, as in all writing, to say something different. Long before "War of the Worlds" and even longer before Star Trek and Star Wars, people looked to the skies with hope, emboldening their legends with all kinds of flying creatures-angels, demons, sometimes aliens-who could do things they could not . That is exactly the purpose of the modern science fiction novel-it says we, the human race, can do something that right now we can not.

The final purpose of the science fiction novel is always to make a mark on society. Star Trek could only go so far. When one looks at a science fiction novel, however, sometimes it seemsingly is a race to the finish instead of a treat on life in the future. Something is always happening; it happens fast. Take Philip K. Dick, for example, who once wrote 11 novels in 2 years (he used various drugs, much like Hunter Thompson, to improve writing speed). However, there is nothing superficial about the science fiction novel. This is because even films have a hard time capturing the legion of ideas presented in the classics, like "The Man In the High Castle," Philip K. Dick's best novel. If any film does capture the purpose of science fiction, it's "Blade Runner," considered to be one of the best films of all time, based on the Philip K. Dick story "Do Andods Dream of Electric Sheep?"

Where it can be hard to pin down the modern science fiction novel, it can easily be seen that writing one can be a lucid ride into the unexplored. One of the best in recent memory is "Hyperion," a science fiction novel that won the famous Hugo award. Here, Simmons explored what is real, much like Philip K. Dick, and did it as though he was poet, forming a tale of seven pilgrims to a far away world, much like "The Canterbury Tales."

Some of the finest novels of the 20th century were labeled "junk" because they explored taboo subjects or had sexually revealing covers. Without the likes of Philip K. Dick, Isaac Asimov, Robert Heinlein, and the hundreds of other talents, maybe there would have been no Star Trek, Star Wars, or Battlestar Galactica. Without the junk science fiction novel bought for a nickel in the 1940s and 50s maybe mankind would never have dreamed of stepping on the moon in the 1960s.

Famous People With Asperger’s Syndrome

In the shadow of the ancient ginkgo tree

Recently, some researchers, in particular, Simon Baron-Kohen and John James, suggested that such well-known personalities from the past, as Albert Einstein and Isaac Newton had Asperger’s syndrome. Scientists say that they showed some tendencies of the syndrome in their behavior, such as an intense interest in one topic, or social problems. One of the chapters of this Gillberg’s book is devoted to this theme, including a detailed case analysis of the situation with philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein with the conclusion that the person meets the criteria for Asperger’s Syndrome. Naturally, the absence of diagnosis during life does not mean that there was nothing to diagnose, especially if we bear in mind that while there was no widespread knowledge about the syndrome (as often happens with Asperger’s syndrome, which recently has been widely recognized in psychiatric circles). However, such post-mortem diagnosis remains controversial.

Arguments in favor of the alleged autism spectrum disorders in famous personalities vary from person to person. Some of them argue that in the case of Albert Einstein (one of the most frequently cited suspected autistic), he learned to talk late, was a lonely kid, organized violent tantrums, silently repeated the previously pronounced sentence, and needed his wives to play the role of parents when he was an adult – the stereotypical factors for autistic individuals. Isaac Newton stuttered and suffered from epilepsy. Many of these alleged historical cases of Asperger’s syndrome can be quite soft (not expressed), but some skeptics argue that in these cases only some features of autism can be seen, and they are not enough to diagnose autism spectrum. In the end, many critics of historical diagnosis claim that it is simply impossible to diagnose the dead, and therefore nothing can be said with certainty about historic individuals with (or withour) Asperger’s syndrome.

All of these assumptions may be just an attempt to create a pattern of behavior (role model, an object for imitation) for people with autism, and demonstrate that they can do constructive things, and make a contribution to society. Such a presumptive diagnosis is often used by activists for the rights of people with autism to show that the treatment of autism would be a loss to society. But others in the organizations for the rights of autistic people do not like these arguments because they feel that people with autism have to appreciate their uniqueness even if they do not want to be healed, regardless of whether people like Einstein were autistic.

Some features of appearance and facts of activity indicate that John Carmack is also a man with AS, or he has other unusual personality type of a similar nature.

Possible causes and origins of Asperger’s syndrome is hotly debated and controversial topic. The majority opinion today is that the causes of Asperger’s syndrome are the same as autism’s. Some researchers, however, disagree and argue that the Asperger syndrome and autism are lead by two different things. All this occurs during the ongoing wider debate about whether Asperger’s syndrome and other conditions (such as attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity disorder – ADHD) are the part of the so-called autism spectrum.

Among many competing theories about the causes of autism (and, therefore, as many believe – Asperger’s Syndrome) – theory of non-complete connection, developed by researchers of cognition at Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh, the theory of marginal male brain of Simon Baron-Kohena, the theory of pre-working, theory of social structure and genetics.

Some theorists give more arguments in favor of Asperger’s syndrome than autism. Sometimes they argument that some specific theories play a greater role in Asperger’s syndrome, for example, theory of social structure and genetics. However, this is the area of considerable controversy.

Famous Poets

Workshop of the Patanazzi family (active circa 1580-1620),Inkstand with Apollo and the Muses,Maiolica (tin glazed earthenware) 1584

Famous poets are writers known for having poetry achievements. Most of these writers are deeply into writing poetry.

All famous poets are not popular well known people. Most people do not know much about these writers. Schools other than colleges may not provide detailed studying on them. Although they may not receive as much attention as people in other fields they should be honored and respected for their poetry achievements.

Most famous poets are authors who’ve had their own poetry book published or have poems in a poetry book. They also have biographies in books and on the internet as well. Emily Dickinson, Louisa May Alcott, Robert Frost and Robert Burns are just some of the many well known poets. Many of the most popular well known poets have died. Theses writers range from the present to dates later than the 1900.

If a person wants to become one of these poets a good place to start is to write a poetry book. The person’s poems in that book would have to be read and liked by readers for that person to have any real chance. Only serious poetry writers are most likely to become one of these poets. Because most people don’t earn much money in the field of poetry a career involving poetry is not something most people consider or want to take a chance in. As poetry continues to grow there will be more poets who become famous through poetry. Unfortunately some writers may only become a famous poet after they’ve died. You can find out a lot about theses writers through books written about these writers in libraries.

Famous Poets

Laugharne Castle

Famous poets are writers known for having poetry achievements. Most of these writers are deeply into writing poetry.

All famous poets are not popular well known people. Most people do not know much about these writers. Schools other than colleges may not provide detailed studying on them. Although they may not receive as much attention as people in other fields they should be honored and respected for their poetry achievements.

Most famous poets are authors who’ve had their own poetry book published or have poems in a poetry book. They also have biographies in books and on the internet as well. Emily Dickinson, Louisa May Alcott, Robert Frost and Robert Burns are just some of the many well known poets. Many of the most popular well known poets have died. Theses writers range from the present to dates later than the 1900.

If a person wants to become one of these poets a good place to start is to write a poetry book. The person’s poems in that book would have to be read and liked by readers for that person to have any real chance. Only serious poetry writers are most likely to become one of these poets. Because most people don’t earn much money in the field of poetry a career involving poetry is not something most people consider or want to take a chance in. As poetry continues to grow there will be more poets who become famous through poetry. Unfortunately some writers may only become a famous poet after they’ve died. You can find out a lot about theses writers through books written about these writers in libraries.

Homeschool and Actors

Golden Lane (Zlatá ulička), Prague, Czechia, June 12, 2017 264

Everyone has seen the struggles associated with being a child actor or a child star. The nature of this lifestyle causes many of these youngsters to suffer from delays in everything from their academics to their social and emotional development, and as a result, many end up struggling as adults. Because of this, it is extremely important that these children be given every opportunity to develop their skills and talents beyond those associated with the small or silver screens.

One of the most effective and popular choices for actors to use in helping them develop proper academic skills and complete their education is to use homeschooling. Homeschooling is a popular choice because of the flexibility that it offers, both in terms of when and how lessons can be taught. Actors who are being homeschooled can complete lessons online, or they can actually have their “teachers” show up to their work and deliver a lesson personally. Either way, it is difficult to argue with the fact that homeschooling, especially for actors, is very convenient.

The acting business being what it is means that student/actors have to have teachers work around their schedule. It is mostly for this reason that student/actors and their parents choose to turn to homeschooling or an accredited distance learning school. Some actors are on the road and way from home for months at a time, making it very difficult for them to attend traditional school. Homeschooling can allow academic curriculum to be individually tailored, and designed not to interfere with the requirements of an acting career.

Homeschooling is also an effective way of completing school sooner. Rather than try to complete a diploma or degree in the traditional length of time, meaning 4 to 6 years, a homeschooling curriculum can allow child actors to complete their education faster and more efficiently, as opposed to having it drag on over the course of several years.

Homeschooling actors and stars is certainly not something new. In fact, some of the most famous people in history, including presidents, inventors, artists, actors, and athletes have all been homeschooled. President George Washington, inventor Thomas Edison, actor Charlie Chaplin, and scientist Albert Einstein are just a few of the famous people who have reaped the benefits of homeschooling.

Things can be difficult enough at work for the child actor without having to add additional stress from having to make time for school. By using homeschooling as an option, parents can provide their children with an effective learning curriculum without having to interfere with their acting career. In addition to the added convenience as well as the obvious flexibility associated with homeschooling, child actors can also benefit from the additional family support that they receive when they are being taught by their parents. There is nothing that can be more beneficial to a young actor than to have family members who are actually involved in an important aspect of their life, and homeschooling is certainly one effective way of accomplishing this, both for academic and emotional purposes.

Who Are The Most Famous Olympic Athletes in the History of the United States of America?

Il mare dei Malavoglia

Evelyn Ashford (100m, 200m/Athletics)

In the latter half of the 20th century, curiously, America’s sprinter Evelyn Ashford took part in four Summer Games: Canada 1976, Los Angeles 1984, Korea 1988, and Spain 1992, after winning the right in the US Olympian Trials. By late 1980, she also was a member of the 1980 US Olympic Squad which boycotted the Moscow Games for political reasons. As well as winning several medals and special awards in the World Championships and National Tournaments, she won two Olympic medals during her athletic career, among them one gold medal in the women’s 100m at the 23rd Summer Games.

Thomas Burke (Track & Field)

During the First Modern Games in Greece’s capital city of Athens, toward the end of the 19th century, Thomas Burke won two Olympic gold medals:100m and 400m, becoming a pioneer in the history of track and field. A few years later, the States had become a powerhouse in athletics on Earth, winning numerous Olympic gold medals and setting many world records.

Cassius Clay (Boxing)

At the 1960 Olympic Games in the Italian capital of Rome, Kentucky-born Cassius Clay –then known as Muhammad Ali– earned the light heavyweight gold medal. Thirty-six years later, he lit the Olympian torch for the Centennial Games in Atlanta (Georgia,US). After his victory on Italian soil, he became one of the greatest professional boxers of all time.

Janet Evans (Swimming)

By 1988, Janet Evans was one of the most famous swimmers on Earth, after capturing three gold medals —400m, 800m and 400m individual medley– in the Games of the 24th Olympiad in Seoul. Thus, a year later, she won James E. Sullivan Memorial Trophy. In 1992, she won other title in the Summer Games in Spain. During her Olympian career, she set seven world records. She hails from Fullerton, CA.

Mia Hamm (Soccer)

Almost everyone across the United States, from Chicago and Kansas City to Miami Beach, Salt Lake City and Anchorage, have heard the name Mia Hamm. Why? Historically, Miss Hamm is the most important player in America’s soccer history (male or female). By 1991, she quickly earned herself a name as a world-class player when her national squad came in first in the Inaugural FIFA World Championship. Then, she helped the U.S. team to a gold medal in the first women’s Soccer Olympic Tournament during the 26th Summer Games. By 2004, her team finished first in the Summer Games in Athens after a silver medal at the Sydney 2000 Games. Aside from earning Olympic medals and other international meets, she also led the American side to its second FIFA World Cup in the end of the 1990s; Hamm and her fellow Americans had captured the global title by defeating the team from the People’s Republic of China (PRC), 5-4, on penalty kicks in the Rose Bowl in Pasadena (CA). Hamm was born on March 17, 1972 in Selma, Alabama. Bill Clinton, the former President of the United States, one of her fans.

Bruce Jenner (Decathlon/ Track & Field)

At the 1976 Montreal Games, Bruce Jenner captured the decathlon event and set a new world record of 8.618 points during a battle with Nikolai Avilov of the USSR (his main rival), whon finished third. Due to his notable performance in Canada, Jenner was one of the most popular sportsmen in the 70s.

Carl Lewis (Track & Field)

On the world stage, Carl Lewis is a sporting icon due to his wins in the Summer Games. Astonishingly, he has won nine Olympian gold medals (100m, 200m, 4x100m relay, long jump), becoming one of the greatest male athletes in the 20th Century, along with Jesse Owens (track) and Nikolai Adrianov (gymnastics). In addition, he won 10 golds at the IAAF World Tournaments in Western Europe and Japan. He hails from Birmingham, Alabama.

Edwin Moses (Athletics)

Edwin Moses never lost a race from 1977 until 1987. 122 wins! Over that years, he amassed two Olympic gold medals (Montreal’ 76 & Los Angeles’ 84). Moses came onto the scene as an international icon in the world when he captured the men’s 110m hurdles at the XXI Summer Games in Canada in July 1976. During those Games, he broke John Akii-Bua’s Olympic record with 47.64 seconds. Four years later, he lowered his personal record to 47.13

Jesse Owens (100m, 200m, long jump/Track & Field)

Jesse Owens wrote history for the United States of America after winning four Olympic gold medals at the 1936 Games in Berlin (Germany). With a time of 10,3 seconds (a new world record), he captured the 100m. Then, after defeating Lutz Long of Germany, the heavy-favorite in Berlin ’36, Owens came in first place in the men’s long jump. In addition to winning the gold, in the following day, he set a new Olympic record of 20,3 seconds in the 200m. Under the direction of Owens, USA won the men’s 4 x 100m with a new world record of 39,8 seconds. Owens hails from Alabama.

Michael Phelps (Aquatics)

Considered as the “Most Outstanding Athlete of the 21st Century”, Michael Phelps has won 14 more gold medals than the combined total of ten countries around the globe: India (a country with a billion inhabitants and which made its Olympic debut in 1900), Iceland, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Chile, Luxembourg, Moldova, Sudan, Brunei Darussalam, and the Socialist republic of Vietnam. By 2004, Phelps captured six golds at the Athens Games. In the next Games, he picked a total of 8 Olympic gold medals. He was born on June 30, 1985, in Baltimore (Maryland).

Mark Spitz (Aquatics)

At the 1972 Munich Summer Games, the most outstanding swimming performance was achieved by Mark Spitz (USA), who picked up a total of seven golds. Prior to the 1970s, Spitz earned five continental trophies in the Pan American Games in Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada), a record which remained unbeaten until 2007 when Brazil’s star swimmer Thiago Pereira won many golds in the Continental Games in Rio de Janeiro.

Jim Thorpe (Decathlon/Athletics)

With 8,847 points, Jim Thorpe became the first American to win the Olympic decathlon during the Games of the 5th Olympiad in Stockholm, Sweden. Historically, he is considered one of the greatest all-around athletes of all time. Curiously, this amazing athlete won membership in more athletic halls of fame than any other American in the Twentieth Century. Following his sporting career, he chose acting as a career. He has become the most popular athlete in American history.

Change the World

13 bedroom Cross Creek

We are capable of changing the world, Farrukh told me while I sunk in the depth of my thoughts. He started nonstop talking without realizing where he is sitting and what he is saying. Without spending time with him, I moved away.

At that time I realized he was right because people like us are capable of changing the world but may be he even do not know why only we and not others. While I was moving away, Farrukh was continuing saying insignificant and stupid sentences. I observed that he is not a normal human he is essentially abnormal because he has more emotions in him which is flowing in the ridiculous way and he always talk more than normal because he eject his extra emotions in the form of words. The people having more emotions also have more potential and ability to change others. If you list the people who influenced the people of the world, you find that these people had extra emotions. In addition, these people utilize their extra emotions in a very positive way by speaking, writing, poetry, art etc.

The best example is of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the ex-prime minister of Pakistan who changed the minds of millions peoples in Pakistan, had extra emotions in him but he utilized those emotions in his debt. Whenever I asked about him from his fans, they told that he was a great speaker. He influenced on the psychic of the people by his speaking power however, such persons are even more practical than others. I am the fan of the famous columnist, Javed Chaudhary. I read most of his columns and I realized that he is also an emotional person but utilizing his emotions in the form of valuable words.

Every person of the world possesses emotions but its level varies in each individual. The level by which we identify elevated emotions is the habits and acts one show during its normal life. I analyzed that poets, writers and artists come under this category but they are utilizing their elevated emotions in a positive way. The extra emotions need to eject out, it flows, and no one stops its way. The most concerned thing is the way that it flows out from one's acts. It is something like water, which is flowing towards the unspecified way, but you manage to divert its position towards right path but can not stop the flow. If a person utilizes its emotions in a very right and positive manner then it will make a difference however, its flow in wrong direction produces ruin, terrible and harmful personalities.

Whenever I see emotional peoples, I start thinking that emotions changes the world but that change is always unidirectional.

Is the Shroud of Turin Medieval? History Tells a Different Story

Údolí Labe

In 1988 the Shroud of Turin entered into a period of its history as dark and gloomy as an approaching hurricane. This would be a storm of bad press and negative opinion. The Shroud was a fake as determined by three carbon dating labs. The party was over. Seven years earlier, in 1981, hopes were high as the Shroud of Turin Research Project announced their results after five days with the cloth and three years analyzing the data. Their results electrified the world with possibility. The Shroud was not the work of an artist and the blood was genuine. Could the Shroud be authentic? Is that even possible?

Not corresponding to the carbon dating labs. Science had spoken and science is never wrong. I dedicate this article to the memory of the late Paul Harvey, the great radio newscaster who became famous with his phrase, "Now you know the rest of the story."

In 1985, twenty-two scientists gathered together at a hotel in Norway to discuss the protocol of how carbon dating of the Shroud would be conducted. Perhaps a little ambitious, but it was agreed that seven different labs would be included, four would use the older technology of proportional counter and three would use the newer nuclear accelerator technology. The tests would be blind while the labs involved would not know which sample was a control or from the Shroud. Lastly, and most importantly, they would cut at least three different locations on the Shroud to balance any skew from potential contamination. This is what was expected to happen.

Now for the rest of the story. Luigi Gonella was the scientific advisor chosen by the Catholic Church to oversee the whole affair. It was his decision to limit the number of labs to three from the original seven. That alone was not earth shattering, seven was probably overkill anyway. But the real mistake was far more than a simple error; it was a colossal blunder and one that would forever leave the Shroud marred with uncertainty. As the leaders of the three labs representing Oxford, Zurich and Tucson gathered around the revered cloth to determine where to cut for their dating samples, Luigi's scientist hat fell to the floor revealing another hat full of Catholic piety. Instead of cutting three different locations on the cloth, Luigi decided on only one location, one that was adjacant to an area cut in 1973 for textile analysis by Gilbert Raes. Why there? It would look pretty. The most significant carbon dating event of the twenty century was determined by aesthetics instead of sound methodology.

In Luigi's defense, there are indications that he was pressured to ignore the sampling protocol by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in Rome and the Centro Internazionale di Sindonologia in Turin. This may be so, but he will always bear the blame for this blunder.

What happened? Instead of three samples, only one was cut. And where was it cut? From the most handled part of the cloth, the very corner that was grabbed and held hundreds of times over the centuries as the Shroud was thought out and held horizontally by Church officials for thousands to see. It was even thought out numerous times to bless royal weddings as it was owned by the royal Savoy family for over 400 years.

So not only was the carbon test limited to just one sample, it was also taken from the very location any archaeologist would have avoided like the swine flu. Is there a problem with the sample? X-ray radiography of the sample area shows a higher density of threads for some reason. Another clue came from chemist Dr. Alan Adler in 1996. He noticed that the spectrographic data from that corner did not match up with the rest of the cloth suggesting a different chemical composition. In 2003 chemist Ray Rogers obtained thread samples from the same corner cut for carbon dating and compared them with threads taken from the main body of the cloth. Rogers confirmed through chemistry the suspicions raised by the other tests. His work was published in a peer reviewed scientific journal in 2005. The corner was not homogenous. It was different; in fact it was radically different.

The presence of starch, cotton and madder root dye all suggested some kind of repair. What? The corner was repaired? When? How? It does not make any sense. Would not Luigi and others have noticed the difference? Not if it was done by the skilled French weavers who specialized in "invisible mending." In the late middle ages, weavers in France had formed a craft guild and were noted for restoring tapestries, curtains and fine clothing to their original condition. Were they employed to repair the Shroud? There is no written account to document this occurrence but the smoking gun is plainly evident. Cotton was used to affect a repair of the frayed corner because it easily absorbs dye. The dye was used to blend in the new cotton threads with the heavily yellowed threads of the Shroud, and lastly starch was used to stiffen the cotton threads as they were meticulously woven into the corner. What else could account for these anomalous substances to be found in that precise corner?

Luigi's colossal blunder leaves us now. With the legalimacy of the carbon dating sample clearly in question, it has to be dismissed as being inconclusive. If the Shroud was any other non-descript artifact from some obscure archaeological site, it would simply be dated again. Not so with the Shroud, twenty-one years have passed since the first carbon dating tests and still no discussion of repeating the tests.
It looks like the historians who must take center stage now to answer one of the central questions around the Shroud. Is it medieval? If not, how old is it?

This article can not tackle the Shroud's entire history. However, it would be instructive to see if the history of the cloth pre-dates the identical carbon date range of 1260 to 1390. The labs determined with a "95% confidence" that the oldest date would be 1260 with the youngest at 1390. At least we know that it was not the work of Leonardo da Vinci who was born a little late-1452 -less of course he invented time travel.

One of the historical challenges has been to bridge all the gaps with clear documentation. Historians lament over the severe lack of documents with regard to almost any person or event dating back more than a couple hundred years. Gaps are filled by inference and context. With the Shroud, one such gap exists between 1204 and 1356. We have a clear historical trail from its arrival in Lirey, France when it was first exhibited until today.

What happened in 1204? This year marks the lowest point of Christian history when crusaders from Venice and France invaded Constantinople, the center of Eastern Christianity. It was considered the richest city on earth and was proud of its collection of relics including the crown of thorns and "most sacred of all, the linen in which our Lord Jesus Christ was wrapped." This was how it was represented in a letter written to Pope Innocent III in 1205 protesting the invasion. We know from other references that this linen contained an image-much like the Shroud. The city was looted and burned. Almost every relic now claimed by some cathedral in France, Spain or Italy can trace its roots to Constantinople. Where did the Shroud go? A document reveals that it was taken to Athens and was seen there in 1207. Four documents now attest to this. Who had it? It had become the possession of a prominent crusader, Othon de la Roche of Burgundy. He was man of wealth and position and was instrumental in the successful sacking of Constantinople. In return for his service, he was awarded Athens as a fiefdom and became the Duke of Athens and was awarded several relics as payment including the Shroud. However his political reign was short lived due to a run-in with the Pope and in 1230 he returned to his castle at Ray-sur-Saône in Burgundy. Kept in one of the towers to this day is a collection of items taken from Constantinople. One of the most important items is a wooden chest with the inscription, "13th century coffer in which was preserved in Ray Castle the Shroud of Christ bought by Othon de Ray from Constantinople-1206." There is some confusion as to whether the inscription reflects to Othon or his son who is known as Othon de Ray. It severely matters. The point is we know the whereabouts of the Shroud in 1230; it was in Burgundy, France.

Now we must move forward 120 years to 1350. This is when Jean de Vergy, the great great granddaughter of Othon de la Roche was to marry a prominent French knight, Geoffrey de Charney. Jean was living in Besancon, France-about a hundred miles from Burgundy. She is recorded to have the Shroud and is kept in Besancon Castle outside the city. Records indicate it was exhibited occasionally at Saint Stevens Cathedral during Easter. The same year as their marriage, the cathedral burned. In 1353, Jean de Vergy and Geoffrey de Charney move to Lirey where Geoffrey builds a church but passes away in 1356. That same year, Jean de Vergy holds the first public exhibition of the Shroud in Geoffrey's honor. A pilgrim's medal is cast showing the Shroud's unique double image with the crest of both families represented. Historians have pieced together through inference and context that Jean de Vergy was the rightful owner of the Shroud as a direct descendant of Othon de la Roche and presented the relic as part of her dowry to Geoffrey when they married.

The years between 1230 when we know it was in Burgundy and 1350 when Jean de Vergy is known to possess it, is when it may have been held by the Knights Templar for safe keeping. A recent document unearthed in the Vatican archives by historian Barbara Fraale reveals the testimony in 1287 of a young recruit to the order who is brought into a secret sanctuary where he is shown a long linen cloth bearing the bearded image of a man and is required to kiss the feet three times. It is more than curious that another Geoffrey de Charney was burned at the stake in 1314 along with Jacque de Molay. They were the two leaders of the Knights Templar who were charged with heresy, that they worshiped a mysterious image. Is it a coincidence that another Geoffrey de Charney, a direct descendant of the executed Templar would marry the rightful heir of the Shroud, Jean de Vergy thirty-six years later? Wow! Writers pay attention. Looking for a story fraught with intrigue, secrets, scandal and betrayal? You just found it.

What does all this mean? Look at the dates … 1205, 1207, 1230 all clearly predating the earliest carbon date of 1260. We have clear possession of the cloth by Othon and his descendants. The most important aspect to this history is this-if we can link the Shroud of Turin to what disappeared during the Fourth Crusade; we suddenly have a documented trail dating back to the sixth century! The history of the cloth that was described as "most sacred of all" began in 525 and disappeared in 1204.

Is there any other way to bridge the gap between 1204 and 1356? There is-and it is the most significant one of all. About thirty years ago an important picture was discovered within the pages of the Hungarian Pray Manuscript. This was the first book ever written and bound in the Hungarian language. Inside is a picture showing two distinct scenes. Scene one shows Jesus laid out on his burial cloth showing only four fingers and no thumbs-same as the Shroud. Scene two shows the cloth wrapped around Jesus with a face image crudely showing that the cloth contains an image. Here is the clincher; the picture also shows an "L" shaped pattern of burn holes exactly as we see them on the Shroud. Lastly, the picture clearly portraits the distinct herringbone pattern weave of the Shroud. It could not be any clearer. This picture dating from 1192 is depicting the Shroud that was kept in Constantinople and is the same cloth that resides in Turin today. There can now be no mistake as to what disappeared in 1204 and later given to Othon de la Roche.

Is the Shroud medieval? Not a chance. As long as we keep pretending the carbon date is somehow accurate since the bad sample, we will continue to look for the identical medieval artist who created it. If you are looking for the artist, start looking in the sixth century. However, do not look too hard because there is evidence that takes it to the third century too. Does it go all the way back to first century? Only if you believe in legends-but every legend has a kernel of truth. Now you know the rest of the story. I think Paul Harvey is smiling.

Is the Shroud of Turin Medieval? History Tells a Different Story

The Blue Color: Color Of Heaven

In 1988 the Shroud of Turin entered into a period of its history as dark and gloomy as an approaching hurricane. This would be a storm of bad press and negative opinion. The Shroud was a fake as determined by three carbon dating labs. The party was over. Seven years earlier, in 1981, hopes were high as the Shroud of Turin Research Project announced their results after five days with the cloth and three years analyzing the data. Their results electrified the world with possibility. The Shroud was not the work of an artist and the blood was genuine. Could the Shroud be authentic? Is that even possible?

Not corresponding to the carbon dating labs. Science had spoken and science is never wrong. I dedicate this article to the memory of the late Paul Harvey, the great radio newscaster who became famous with his phrase, "Now you know the rest of the story."

In 1985, twenty-two scientists gathered together at a hotel in Norway to discuss the protocol of how carbon dating of the Shroud would be conducted. Perhaps a little ambitious, but it was agreed that seven different labs would be included, four would use the older technology of proportional counter and three would use the newer nuclear accelerator technology. The tests would be blind while the labs involved would not know which sample was a control or from the Shroud. Lastly, and most importantly, they would cut at least three different locations on the Shroud to balance any skew from potential contamination. This is what was expected to happen.

Now for the rest of the story. Luigi Gonella was the scientific advisor chosen by the Catholic Church to oversee the whole affair. It was his decision to limit the number of labs to three from the original seven. That alone was not earth shattering, seven was probably overkill anyway. But the real mistake was far more than a simple error; it was a colossal blunder and one that would forever leave the Shroud marred with uncertainty. As the leaders of the three labs representing Oxford, Zurich and Tucson gathered around the revered cloth to determine where to cut for their dating samples, Luigi's scientist hat fell to the floor revealing another hat full of Catholic piety. Instead of cutting three different locations on the cloth, Luigi decided on only one location, one that was adjacant to an area cut in 1973 for textile analysis by Gilbert Raes. Why there? It would look pretty. The most significant carbon dating event of the twenty century was determined by aesthetics instead of sound methodology.

In Luigi's defense, there are indications that he was pressured to ignore the sampling protocol by the Pontifical Academy of Sciences in Rome and the Centro Internazionale di Sindonologia in Turin. This may be so, but he will always bear the blame for this blunder.

What happened? Instead of three samples, only one was cut. And where was it cut? From the most handled part of the cloth, the very corner that was grabbed and held hundreds of times over the centuries as the Shroud was thought out and held horizontally by Church officials for thousands to see. It was even thought out numerous times to bless royal weddings as it was owned by the royal Savoy family for over 400 years.

So not only was the carbon test limited to just one sample, it was also taken from the very location any archaeologist would have avoided like the swine flu. Is there a problem with the sample? X-ray radiography of the sample area shows a higher density of threads for some reason. Another clue came from chemist Dr. Alan Adler in 1996. He noticed that the spectrographic data from that corner did not match up with the rest of the cloth suggesting a different chemical composition. In 2003 chemist Ray Rogers obtained thread samples from the same corner cut for carbon dating and compared them with threads taken from the main body of the cloth. Rogers confirmed through chemistry the suspicions raised by the other tests. His work was published in a peer reviewed scientific journal in 2005. The corner was not homogenous. It was different; in fact it was radically different.

The presence of starch, cotton and madder root dye all suggested some kind of repair. What? The corner was repaired? When? How? It does not make any sense. Would not Luigi and others have noticed the difference? Not if it was done by the skilled French weavers who specialized in "invisible mending." In the late middle ages, weavers in France had formed a craft guild and were noted for restoring tapestries, curtains and fine clothing to their original condition. Were they employed to repair the Shroud? There is no written account to document this occurrence but the smoking gun is plainly evident. Cotton was used to affect a repair of the frayed corner because it easily absorbs dye. The dye was used to blend in the new cotton threads with the heavily yellowed threads of the Shroud, and lastly starch was used to stiffen the cotton threads as they were meticulously woven into the corner. What else could account for these anomalous substances to be found in that precise corner?

Luigi's colossal blunder leaves us now. With the legalimacy of the carbon dating sample clearly in question, it has to be dismissed as being inconclusive. If the Shroud was any other non-descript artifact from some obscure archaeological site, it would simply be dated again. Not so with the Shroud, twenty-one years have passed since the first carbon dating tests and still no discussion of repeating the tests.
It looks like the historians who must take center stage now to answer one of the central questions around the Shroud. Is it medieval? If not, how old is it?

This article can not tackle the Shroud's entire history. However, it would be instructive to see if the history of the cloth pre-dates the identical carbon date range of 1260 to 1390. The labs determined with a "95% confidence" that the oldest date would be 1260 with the youngest at 1390. At least we know that it was not the work of Leonardo da Vinci who was born a little late-1452 -less of course he invented time travel.

One of the historical challenges has been to bridge all the gaps with clear documentation. Historians lament over the severe lack of documents with regard to almost any person or event dating back more than a couple hundred years. Gaps are filled by inference and context. With the Shroud, one such gap exists between 1204 and 1356. We have a clear historical trail from its arrival in Lirey, France when it was first exhibited until today.

What happened in 1204? This year marks the lowest point of Christian history when crusaders from Venice and France invaded Constantinople, the center of Eastern Christianity. It was considered the richest city on earth and was proud of its collection of relics including the crown of thorns and "most sacred of all, the linen in which our Lord Jesus Christ was wrapped." This was how it was represented in a letter written to Pope Innocent III in 1205 protesting the invasion. We know from other references that this linen contained an image-much like the Shroud. The city was looted and burned. Almost every relic now claimed by some cathedral in France, Spain or Italy can trace its roots to Constantinople. Where did the Shroud go? A document reveals that it was taken to Athens and was seen there in 1207. Four documents now attest to this. Who had it? It had become the possession of a prominent crusader, Othon de la Roche of Burgundy. He was man of wealth and position and was instrumental in the successful sacking of Constantinople. In return for his service, he was awarded Athens as a fiefdom and became the Duke of Athens and was awarded several relics as payment including the Shroud. However his political reign was short lived due to a run-in with the Pope and in 1230 he returned to his castle at Ray-sur-Saône in Burgundy. Kept in one of the towers to this day is a collection of items taken from Constantinople. One of the most important items is a wooden chest with the inscription, "13th century coffer in which was preserved in Ray Castle the Shroud of Christ bought by Othon de Ray from Constantinople-1206." There is some confusion as to whether the inscription reflects to Othon or his son who is known as Othon de Ray. It severely matters. The point is we know the whereabouts of the Shroud in 1230; it was in Burgundy, France.

Now we must move forward 120 years to 1350. This is when Jean de Vergy, the great great granddaughter of Othon de la Roche was to marry a prominent French knight, Geoffrey de Charney. Jean was living in Besancon, France-about a hundred miles from Burgundy. She is recorded to have the Shroud and is kept in Besancon Castle outside the city. Records indicate it was exhibited occasionally at Saint Stevens Cathedral during Easter. The same year as their marriage, the cathedral burned. In 1353, Jean de Vergy and Geoffrey de Charney move to Lirey where Geoffrey builds a church but passes away in 1356. That same year, Jean de Vergy holds the first public exhibition of the Shroud in Geoffrey's honor. A pilgrim's medal is cast showing the Shroud's unique double image with the crest of both families represented. Historians have pieced together through inference and context that Jean de Vergy was the rightful owner of the Shroud as a direct descendant of Othon de la Roche and presented the relic as part of her dowry to Geoffrey when they married.

The years between 1230 when we know it was in Burgundy and 1350 when Jean de Vergy is known to possess it, is when it may have been held by the Knights Templar for safe keeping. A recent document unearthed in the Vatican archives by historian Barbara Fraale reveals the testimony in 1287 of a young recruit to the order who is brought into a secret sanctuary where he is shown a long linen cloth bearing the bearded image of a man and is required to kiss the feet three times. It is more than curious that another Geoffrey de Charney was burned at the stake in 1314 along with Jacque de Molay. They were the two leaders of the Knights Templar who were charged with heresy, that they worshiped a mysterious image. Is it a coincidence that another Geoffrey de Charney, a direct descendant of the executed Templar would marry the rightful heir of the Shroud, Jean de Vergy thirty-six years later? Wow! Writers pay attention. Looking for a story fraught with intrigue, secrets, scandal and betrayal? You just found it.

What does all this mean? Look at the dates … 1205, 1207, 1230 all clearly predating the earliest carbon date of 1260. We have clear possession of the cloth by Othon and his descendants. The most important aspect to this history is this-if we can link the Shroud of Turin to what disappeared during the Fourth Crusade; we suddenly have a documented trail dating back to the sixth century! The history of the cloth that was described as "most sacred of all" began in 525 and disappeared in 1204.

Is there any other way to bridge the gap between 1204 and 1356? There is-and it is the most significant one of all. About thirty years ago an important picture was discovered within the pages of the Hungarian Pray Manuscript. This was the first book ever written and bound in the Hungarian language. Inside is a picture showing two distinct scenes. Scene one shows Jesus laid out on his burial cloth showing only four fingers and no thumbs-same as the Shroud. Scene two shows the cloth wrapped around Jesus with a face image crudely showing that the cloth contains an image. Here is the clincher; the picture also shows an "L" shaped pattern of burn holes exactly as we see them on the Shroud. Lastly, the picture clearly portraits the distinct herringbone pattern weave of the Shroud. It could not be any clearer. This picture dating from 1192 is depicting the Shroud that was kept in Constantinople and is the same cloth that resides in Turin today. There can now be no mistake as to what disappeared in 1204 and later given to Othon de la Roche.

Is the Shroud medieval? Not a chance. As long as we keep pretending the carbon date is somehow accurate since the bad sample, we will continue to look for the identical medieval artist who created it. If you are looking for the artist, start looking in the sixth century. However, do not look too hard because there is evidence that takes it to the third century too. Does it go all the way back to first century? Only if you believe in legends-but every legend has a kernel of truth. Now you know the rest of the story. I think Paul Harvey is smiling.

Homeschool and Actors

Serna, Ismael de la (1897-1968) - 1931 Violin Still Life

Everyone has seen the struggles associated with being a child actor or a child star. The nature of this lifestyle causes many of these youngsters to suffer from delays in everything from their academics to their social and emotional development, and as a result, many end up struggling as adults. Because of this, it is extremely important that these children be given every opportunity to develop their skills and talents beyond those associated with the small or silver screens.

One of the most effective and popular choices for actors to use in helping them develop proper academic skills and complete their education is to use homeschooling. Homeschooling is a popular choice because of the flexibility that it offers, both in terms of when and how lessons can be taught. Actors who are being homeschooled can complete lessons online, or they can actually have their “teachers” show up to their work and deliver a lesson personally. Either way, it is difficult to argue with the fact that homeschooling, especially for actors, is very convenient.

The acting business being what it is means that student/actors have to have teachers work around their schedule. It is mostly for this reason that student/actors and their parents choose to turn to homeschooling or an accredited distance learning school. Some actors are on the road and way from home for months at a time, making it very difficult for them to attend traditional school. Homeschooling can allow academic curriculum to be individually tailored, and designed not to interfere with the requirements of an acting career.

Homeschooling is also an effective way of completing school sooner. Rather than try to complete a diploma or degree in the traditional length of time, meaning 4 to 6 years, a homeschooling curriculum can allow child actors to complete their education faster and more efficiently, as opposed to having it drag on over the course of several years.

Homeschooling actors and stars is certainly not something new. In fact, some of the most famous people in history, including presidents, inventors, artists, actors, and athletes have all been homeschooled. President George Washington, inventor Thomas Edison, actor Charlie Chaplin, and scientist Albert Einstein are just a few of the famous people who have reaped the benefits of homeschooling.

Things can be difficult enough at work for the child actor without having to add additional stress from having to make time for school. By using homeschooling as an option, parents can provide their children with an effective learning curriculum without having to interfere with their acting career. In addition to the added convenience as well as the obvious flexibility associated with homeschooling, child actors can also benefit from the additional family support that they receive when they are being taught by their parents. There is nothing that can be more beneficial to a young actor than to have family members who are actually involved in an important aspect of their life, and homeschooling is certainly one effective way of accomplishing this, both for academic and emotional purposes.