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All These Worlds Are Yours – The Appeal of Science Fiction

Qoʻqon UZ - Dakhmai-Shokhon 02

I've been fascinated with science fiction stories for as long as I can remember, though, I must confess, I never thought of science fiction as being mainstream literature. I, like many readers, pursed science fiction as a form of escapism, a way to keep up with speculation on recent scientific discoveries, or just a way to pass the time.

It was not until I met with my thesis adviser to celebrate the approval of my paper that I had to think about science fiction in a new light. My adviser works for a large, well-known literary foundation that is considered to be very "canonical" in its tastes. When he asked me if I liked science fiction, and if I would be willing to select about one hundred stories for possible inclusion in an anthology that they were thinking about producing, I was somewhat surprised. When he told me it might lead to a paying gig, I became even more astounded. I went home that afternoon feeling very content: my paper had been approved, and I might get a paying job to select science fiction, of all things.

Then it hit me: I'd actually have to seriously think about some sort of a method to select from the thousands of science fiction short stories that had been written in the past century. When I considered that the ideals of the foundation would have to be reflected in the stories which I selected, something near panic set in: science fiction was not part of the "cannon."

"While I pondered weak and weary, over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore," I reached a decision: I'd first try to figure out what science fiction "was," and then I'd develop a set of themes that related to the essence of science fiction. So, armed with this battle plan, I proceeded to read what several famous authors had to say about science fiction. This seemed simple enough, until I discovered that no two authors thought science fiction meant quite the same thing. Oh, great, thought I: "nevermore." (Sorry, Edgar, I could not resist).

Having failed to discover the essence of science fiction, I selected four authors which work I liked to try to determine what they contributed to the art of science fiction. The authors were: Isaac Asimov, Robert Silverberg, Orson Scott Card, and Arthur C Clarke. At the time, I did not realize that two of the authors, Asimov and Clarke were considered "hard" science fiction writers, and the other two, Silverberg and Card, were considered "soft" science fiction writers.

So, you might ask: what is the difference between "hard" and "soft" science fiction. I'm glad you asked, else I would have to stop writing right about now. "Hard" science fiction is concerned with an understanding of quantum sciences, such as astronomy, physics, chemistry, etc. "Soft" science fiction is often associated with the humanities or social sciences, such as sociology, psychology or economics. Of course, some writers blend "hard" and "soft" science fiction into their work, as Asimov did in the Foundation trilogy.

So, having selected the authors, I was ready to proceed to my next challenge, which you can read about in the next installation of the series. "All these worlds are yours:" the Appeal of Science Fiction, Part II

In the first part of the series, I mentioned that I was given an assignment to select approximately one hundred science fiction short stories for inclusion in an anthology that was being considered by a literary foundation. Originally, I'd intended to find the "essence" of science fiction, and then select stories that reflected this essence. Unfortunately, this turned out to be nearly impossible, since different authors had different ideas about what constituted science fiction.

So, I took the easy way out, I selected four authors which works appealed to me, and hoped that I could make selection based on my familiarity with their works. My selection process rejected in four authors who have been writing science fiction for thirty years or more: Isaac Asimov, Robert Silverberg, Orson Scott Card, and Arthur C Clarke. As it turned out, two authors were considered "hard" science fiction writers, and two were considered "soft" science fiction writers.

Well, I finally had a plan. And then the wheels fell off. I still needed some sort of selection criteria, or I had to develop one as I read. So, I did what anyone in my place would have done. I started reading. I read, and read some more, and then … I read some more. Over three thousand pages and three hundred short stories, in fact. I was almost ready to make a stab at a selection process; almost, but not quite.

What, three thousand pages, and still can not figure out how to start? How could this be? Okay, so I'm exaggerating a little bit. I started to break the stories up into groupings around general themes-it helps when I organize things into groups, so I can apply some sort of selection criteria for seemingly unreferenced data points (who says that thirty years in business does not have its rewards )? Gradually, I began grouping the stories into several broad headings: scientific discoveries; life-forms (which included aliens, man-made life and artificial life); the search for meaning (which includes the search for God or the gods); the death of a group of men, a nation, race, or system; the meaning of morality.

Now I admit, these groupings may be arbitrary, and may in fact reflect my perspective on things, but I had to start somewhere. The strange thing was that these grouping tended to repeat, no matter who the author was. When I think about it, these same types of concerns are mirrored in the more "canonical" texts that are taught in school. So, what makes science fiction different from the mainstream texts in colleges and universities across the country?

Once again, I'm glad you asked that, because it is a perfect lead-in to the next part of the series. "All these worlds are yours:" the Appeal of Science Fiction, Part III

I guess that the main difference between science fiction and the more acceptable or "canonical" type of fiction must arise either from the themes employed, or the subject matter. In part two of this series, I mentioned that the themes employed by science fiction, namely: the search for life, identity, the gods, and morality are similar to those themes employed in "canonical" literature. By the process of subtraction, that leaves subject matter as the primary difference between the two genres.

So, by subject matter, we must mean science, since we've already covered fiction ("when you has eliminated the impossible, whatever is left, no matter how improbable, must be the truth," as Sherlock Holmes would say). So, we must infer that science is the factor which differentiates science fiction from traditional fiction. By this definition, several traditional pieces of fiction must be considered science fiction. As an example, The Tempest, by William Shakespeare has often been cited as a type of science fiction if we expand the category to include those works that incorporated current science into their works. But wait, you say, The Tempest does not incorporate science into its construction. Oh really, I reply, the English were just beginning to settle the New World in earnest when the play was written ("Oh, brave new world that has such people in't.") more fantasy than science fiction. Splitting hairs, I reply.

What then of John Milton, I ask? John Milton … why, he's so boring and well, unread these days, you reply. Of course he is, but that's beside the point. What about Paradise Lost, I rejoin? What about it, you reply (and then in a very low voice … I've never read it). The scene where Satan leaves hell and takes a cosmic tour before alighting on Earth and Paradise has been described by many critics as being the first instance of an author providing a cosmological view of the heavens. In fact, Milton schools point to the fact that Milton, in the Aereopagitica claims to have visited Galileo Galilei at his home in Italy. These same critics also refer to the fact that Milton taught his nephews astronomy, using several texts that were considered progressive in their day. Still, most critics would fall on their pens (swords being so messy and difficult to come by these days), rather than admit to Paradise Lost being … gasp, science fiction.

Still not convinced; what do you say about Frankenstein? You say it made for several interesting movies, but really, the creature was overdone; bad make-up and all that. I reply: the make-up is irrelevant; for that matter, so are many of the films, which do not do justice to Mary Shelley's novel. She did not even write the novel, you reply. Oh no, not another apologist for Percy Bysshe Shelley writing the novel. Let me state uniquivocally that I do not care whether Mary or Percy wrote the novel: it is often cited as the first instance of science fiction. But where is the science, you ask: it is only alluded-to. That's' why it's also fiction, I retort.

So, where are we? I think we've managed to muddle the waters somewhere. It appears that the element of science is needed for science fiction, but the precedents for science being contained in a fictional work, are somewhat troubling. Perhaps in the next section, we should examine "modern" science fiction and try to determine how science plays a part in works of the twenty and twenty-first centuries.

"All these worlds are yours:" the Appeal of Science Fiction, Part IV

Up till now, we've defined science fiction as part science, and part fiction. No real revolutionary concept there. I've tried to show how earlier works could have considered science fiction, with mixed results. I've also said that works of the twenty century would be easier to classify as science fiction, because they incorporated more elements of leading-edge science into their writing.

To use two brief examples, the Foundation trilogy by Isaac Asimov is often considered a "soft" science fiction work, relying more on the social sciences than the physical sciences in the plot line. In the story, Asimov posits the creation of a foundation that relationships on psychohistory, a kind of melding of group psychology and economics that is useful in predicting and extremely molding, human behavior. Anyone who has been following the stock and financial markets over the past year can attest to the element of herd mentality which permeates any large scale human interaction. The theme of shaping human dynamics through psychohistory, while somewhat far-fetched is not beyond the realm of possibility (and would, no doubt, be welcomed by market bulls right about now).

A second example from Asimov, that of the three laws of robotics, has taken on a life of its own. Asimov began developing the laws of robotics to explain how a robot might work. The three laws were postulated as a mechanism to protect humans and robots. He did not expect the laws to become so ingrained into the literature on robots; in fact, the laws have become something of a de facto standard in any story or novel written about artificial life, as Asimov has noted in several essays.

The case of Asimov's three laws of robotics influencing other writers is not unusual. In the case of Arthur C. Clarke, his influence is felt beyond writing and extends to science as well. Clarke is the person responsible for postulating the use of geo-synchronous orbit for satellites, and the makers of weather, communications, entertainment and spy satellites owe him a debt of gratitude for developing this theory. He anticipated the manned landing on the moon, and many discoveries made on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and their many moons.

Consider also, Orson Scott Card, which novel speaker for the Dead, postulates a world-wide communication network that is uncannily similar to the world-wide-web and predated the commercial internet by some fifteen to twenty years.

It appears then, that science fiction writers popularize science, provide their readers with a glimpse of the possibilities of newventions and theories, and sometimes, anticipate or even discover new uses for technology. But there's still an element missing in our definition of science fiction, that of the fiction side of the equation. We'll explore the fiction side of science fiction in the next installation. "All these worlds are yours:" the Appeal of Science Fiction, Part V

Good literature requires a successful plot, character development, and an emotional appeal in order to be successful. Science fiction is no different than traditional forms of fiction in this regard. We've talked about plot and content (science) in early installations. In this installation, I'd like to talk about the emotional reactions generated by science fiction.

Broadly speaking, I think science fiction appeals to the following emotional responses: terrorism, the joy of discovery, awe and wonder, a lassitude born of too many space flights or too many worlds, and a sense of accomplishment. The instances of terror in science fiction are well documented: for anyone who has seen Alien for the first time, terrorism is a very real emotion. Many science fiction and horror writers as well, make good use of the emotion of terror. An effective use of terror is important, however. Slasher movies use terror, but they sometimes degenerate into an almost parodic exercise of who can generate the most gore per minute. True terror is a case of timing and the unexpected. That's why Arthur C Clarke's story entitled "A Walk in the Dark" is so effective. The author sets-up the BEM (bug-eyed monster, from Orson Scott Card) as a pursuing agent; the protagonist has no idea that the monster will actually wind-up in front of him.

As to the joy of discovery, this emotion can work in reverse. In Orson Scott Card's brilliant short story and novel, Ender's Game, the child protagonist learns that the war games he was practicing for were actually the real thing. His surprise, remorse and confusion have sustained effects on his psyche, and set the stage for his attempts later in life to attain some sort of recompense for the race which he and his cohorts destroyed.

Robert Silverberg's works evoke a feeling of dj-vu, a sense of being on too many worlds or too many travels; a moral ennui not found in many writers. Yet somehow, he transcends this eternal boredom to reveal with startingling clarity that something lies beyond; if only aought after end.

Perhaps no other science fiction author offers a sense of wonder and discovery, a sense of joy de vivre, as does Arthur C Clarke. In story after story, Clarke expounds on new worlds, new discoveries, new possibilities ("all these worlds are yours …"). His love of the cosmos is rooted in his love of astronomy and physics, and is bundled together with a love of mannish that makes his work so inspiring and evergreen.

But what of our final category, that of a sense of accomplishment? Each of these writers talks in some way to the human experience. In bridging the worlds of science and fiction, in writing to our fears, hopes, joys and sorrows, each of these authors stakes a claim to be included among the list of canonical authors. In "Nightfall," Arthur C Clarke writes the effects of an atomic war, and thinks back to an earlier time. He is staking his claim to posterity when he writes:

Good freed for Iesvs sake forbeare,

To dig the dvst enclosed heare

Blest be ye man yt spares thes stones,

And cvrst be he yt moves my bones.

Undisturbed through all eternity the poet could sleep in safety now: in the silence and darkness above his head, the Avon was seeking its new outlet to the sea.

For Sir Arthur was paying his respects to the Bard, and claiming his place in the pantheon of the great English writers.

The Prelude As the Spiritual Autobiography of the Poet

River Wharfe - Wharfedale

This autobiographical poem is written in blank verse by William Wordsworth. He wrote its first version at the age of 28 and continued it for his long life without publishing it. It was published three months after the death of the poet in 1850, and it was entitled by his widow Mary. It is not an external autobiography of the poet, but it is an internal autobiography. It possesses the record of the growth and development of the poet’s mind with the help of beauty and fear. In this poem, William Wordsworth recalls his childhood experience which was enriched with the magic of nature. For him, the nature is a best teacher and under her teaching, there happens the growth of soul, heart and mind. So, she transcends man to spirituality.

In the first book of The Prelude, the poet tells about his childhood and school time. He calls nature a mother, and whenever he comes in the lap of mother, he feels himself happy and as free as a bird. Besides, he lived in London, but its life seemed him to be unnatural. The poet describes his contact with nature at the age of five. He always played with nature at Cockermouth. At Kankshead, he and his companions used to take part in a variety of games. In this book, he tells that how he was nursed and brought up by the various ministries. Nature is a teacher to him, and under her teaching, he understood the rules and developed himself spiritually as well as mentally. He agrees that her mighty weapons are pleasure and fear.

William Wordsworth acquaints us with his childhood and wandering. He enjoyed a lot by his long spell of bathing in the river. His long bathing increased his pleasure and attraction to nature; for she holds cold water with sweet colour, rhythm and test. The poet felt a great joy by playing with it. He sometimes ran in the sandy fields and leapt through flowery graves. Sometimes, He stood alone under the blue sky amid the enchanting rocks and the hills shining with the joyful beams of the sun. Under such innocent pleasure, he understood himself to be a Red Indian boy who comes from his mother’s hut to sport a naked savage in the thunder shower. His bathing in the river and wandering in the company of valleys, hills and mountains provided him a healthy pleasure that helped him to grow and develop his mind and soul. The poet recalls them because they link him to nature or spiritual world. Besides, they still provide him more joy and pleasure, and the poet is able to express or write his internal autobiography.

At his childhood, he used to play different games with his companions. At the age of ten, he used to catch Woodcocks over the high hill sides under the light of the moon and how he used to catch hold of a bird which was trapped in the snare of some other person. He was busy in such unwilling actions to nature. The nature watched him and debarred him from such unfair deeds by means of fear. The poet felt that some one with low breathing was following him continually and persistently. Her pursuit caused a troublesome fear to him and he avoided doing it again.

His other sport was stealing the eggs of birds. He, with his young friends, wandered in quest of high hills, and sometimes, he was found alone hanging above the nest of a raven. At such times, he was faced a strange and awful sound of the wind blowing against the hill. The sky and the dark and gloomy clouds used to stand gigantic above with an awful appearance. He felt a pure trouble. One thing, I must admit that why children like to steal away the eggs and play with them. Its main cause is the colour of eggs which really attract the children. The other is nature that teaches the child by means of fear when he is alone. Simultaneously, the nature pursues him and puts in his mind the fear as he may not repeat such deeds.

In stealing boat, the nature issues him a pure trouble. He stole a boat and started it moving over the lake. He saw that his boat was moving as the swain in the lake. Apart from it, he was going through the mountains which really added a great pleasure to him. All of sudden, he heard the echoing sound from the mountain sides because the teacher (nature) did not accept the action. Admitting it as a warning, he went into dismay. Sometimes, he found a huge and black raising its head from behind the range of hills. Nature like an awful and strange creature with its will and power was following him without pause. Under such dismay, he was brought to the same place from where he had stolen the boat. He was overwhelmed by fear and hurried homeward with a pensive mood. His mind was always haunted by such huge forms that fostered his soul with fear.

His other game was skating on the ice. He recalls that he, in the company of other friends, moved on the skates around the trees and the hills. Sometimes he made himself away from the friends and chased them. He accepts that nature followed him when he was alone. The echo of rising sounds of the skates from the trees and the surrounding hills provided him innocent pleasure. He used to enjoy a lot in the lap of nature. He turned jocundly round and round. Such company always excited him to understand the pursuit of nature.

It is the nature that enabled him to play in her lap and to express his love for her. Although he was grown up, he did not forget such revelries and memories of childhood that made this materialistic world easy and joyful with the touch of nature. His poems on the natural objects show his gratitude to her.

The 4 Different Types of Connectives Used in Good Public Speaking

Qoʻqon UZ - Dakhmai-Shokhon 05

Good public speaking skills involve more than presenting informative or persuasive material to an audience in an engaging, uplifting manner. It requires the use of connectives to keep your presentation or speech organized as well as unified. Better than a verbal tic, such as ‘um’ or ‘ah,’ by employing good connectives in your speech, you will also make it easier for your listeners to both follow what you are saying and remember more of what you are saying.

The 4 types of connectives include:

1. Signposts

Without a doubt, one of the most popular forms of connectives are signposts. The signpost refers to very brief statements that tell your audience where you are in your speech. They can be numbers – the 1st idea, the 2nd idea, etc.; they can be questions which offer good audience interaction; and, they can be phrases that underscore important points in your message.

Example: The most important thing I want you to gain from my presentation is that breathing with the support of your diaphragm will not only end vocal abuse but it will also mean a more confident, more mature-sounding speaking voice.

In the above statement, I have reiterated what I want my audience to remember but I have also let them know that I have come to the end of my development. While those words are not my concluding statement, they have paved the way for my conclusion.

2. Transitions

Transitions are words or phrases that mark the end of one thought or idea and move the speaker into another thought or idea by including material from the previous statement into the new one.

Example: Now that we have seen that the habitual voice can be affected by vocal abuse, allow me to explain how the situation can be reversed.

In the above sentence, the words in bold mark the transition, reinforcing my previous statements and paving the way for the new statement.

3. Internal Previews

Similar to the transition and often including a transition, the internal preview is found in the development of the speech or presentation and includes what is coming up in greater detail than the transition. The preview is in bold.

Example: Now that we have seen that the habitual voice can be affected by vocal abuse, the remedy is quite simple. Learn to breathe with the support of your diaphragm and allow your chests to power your voice.

Including the original transition, the internal preview consists of the statement which follows in bold.

4. Internal Summaries

Found also in the development of the speech or presentation, the internal summary is the opposite of the internal preview because it lists ever so briefly what has already been stated. These summaries are important because they reinforce what has already been said, making it easier for your audience to follow your message.

Example: In essence, by learning to breathe properly, finding the optimum pitch of your speaking voice, and allowing your chest to do the work, you will eliminate vocal abuse forever.

The above sentence summarizes succinctly what may have been discussed for the last 10, 20 or even 40 minutes of your delivery.

Using any and all of the above connectives in your delivery are very effective means of keeping your audience’s attention as well as keeping your talk organized. Use them and your listeners will remember more of what you have said.

How to Write More Effective Copy

Golden Lane (Zlatá ulička), Prague, Czechia, June 12, 2017 264

In my copywriting coaching program, the very first lesson I encourage all my students to do is one entitled "Persuasion Architecture". This lesson explains how, just like any other type of writing, a sales letter must have a STRUCTURE.

In fact, I would require my students to study famous direct marketing pieces and determine what "persuasion architecture" the copywriter follows. This gives the students practice through this 'reverse-engineering' process to appreciate that beyond the words and sentences there must be a certain flow, plan, map, or whatever other name you want to use, to great copywriting.

I've only recently completed a Masters Degree program and one of the courses I had to take was 'Research Methods'. Apart from teaching you how to carry our academic research, it also has a heavy writing component. The text used for the class for the writing component of the course basically covered things I already knew from copywriting but with an academic twist.

In fact, I got an "excellent" for my writing but the paper mechanics (formatting) was a little lacking. (I just hate all those footnote, bibliography, etc, 'rules' that go with academic writing.

For example, if you are writing a paper based on a deductive argument then you must start with a thesis statement and "tell the readers what you are going to tell them, then introduce the general topic, narrow your claim, followed by support arguments and after "telling them what you told them" you conclude with the claims of the thesis statement and its implications.

In other words, there is a pattern you must follow to make the paper logically connected and lucid. You readers are prepared for what you are about to explain and after you have explained this, summarizing what your paper is about.

As a copywriter, you must also think about the structure you are going to use for your letter BEFORE you even start writing. This would be your plan from which you will build your literary house made up of words, sentences paragraphs and sections.

One of the most common mistakes I see rookie copywriters make is that they concentrate so much on the "power words" and "sounding like a copywriter" that the flow of the letter suffers. The main reasons for this lack of flow arise because:

* The headline does not logically connect with the opening paragraph but addresses two different ideas

* The topic sentence of each paragraph is not logically supported by the following 'body' sentences.

* The "transitions" from one paragraph to another is almost ignored so there is an awkward disconnect.

* The right information is given in the wrong places such as the 'call to action' given before the list of benefits. (Think AIDA.)

* Too much real-estate is given to a minor selling point.

In order to maintain the "slippery slide" in my letters I always try and write my letters in one sitting. This may sometimes mean writing for 12 hours straight but while I'm writing the last sentence I still have the first sentence in my head. If I do break off from writing I'll have to start reading from the very beginning to make sure that I have the letter letter in mind. Interestingly, one of the great techniques used by article writers and which can work in sales letter writing is to bring the article full circle by ending on the same idea, story, or issue that you started with.

Now, it would not always be possible to write a long sales letter in one sitting, but in the planning process (just like you 'outline' an essay) you can ensure that the letter will flow smoothly from beginning to end. A disorganized sales letter is a major hindrance to persuasion. It is often said that you sell the sizzle but not the steak but even the sizzle must have some rhythm and cadence to it.

When I first started writing my own sales letters for the internet I took a letter written by a top copywriter and studied the patterns he used and did the same for my letter. Do this work? Like gangbusters. No, I was not a "swipe" because the products were different and you will never be able to recognize this as a "swipe" because I borrowed only the "plot" of his letter.

Speaking of plots, (which is another word for the 'plan of the story') just the other day I was telling my kids that the best plots are used over and over again with different story and its no accident the top movies and stories use common plots.

So study those famous pieces in your swipe-file and determine the plan or structure the writer used and borrow those 'persuasion architecture' to build YOUR own persuasion masterpieces.

Did You Know That There Are Many Famous People With ADHD Who Have Lead Productive Lives?

The Blue Color: Color Of Heaven

Yes, there are famous people with ADHD. Some have long since passed on into history but they have left their mark and we benefit from their contributions to the world and to society. Others are easily recognizable and are to be found in the acting and sports arenas, business world, etc. While there is still a stigma attached to anyone with a mental disorder it is worthwhile letting your child who has been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder know that they actually share the spotlight with some very notable and noteworthy individuals. Some have even gone so far as to suggest that schools display information in the form of posters regarding those celebrities and other famous people who have or had ADHD in a bid to eliminate the stigma associated with the disorder.

There are around ten million adults in the United States living with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD. Given the enormity of this number it really should come as no surprise that a significant number of those who are famous for whatever reason should also be included in that figure. When this disorder is not treated the individual will suffer with poor concentration and will struggle with being organized which can understandably lead to greater problems in the person’s life.

Roughly sixty percent of children in the country who are diagnosed with ADHD will continue to experience the associated symptoms even once they have attained adulthood. Alarmingly many children who are ADHD will remain undiagnosed with a number of them only getting diagnosed once they have reached middle age.

For children diagnosed with this disorder famous people with ADHD can really help them to cope better as they recognize themselves in these celebrities. For example the Olympic swimming champion, Michael Phelps has ADHD and he has been reported as saying that he oftentimes felt stigmatized while he was growing up. This was exacerbated by the fact that he had to collect his meds from the school nurse every day until eventually he convinced his mom to let him go off the medication. He used his competitiveness in the swimming pool to help him focus himself and attributes that with learning to manage his Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In fact it has been shown that ADHD kids very often benefit from participating in competitive sports.

Other famous people with ADHD include actors and actresses such as: Whoopi Goldberg, Tom Cruise, Will Smith, Dakota Fanning, Robin Williams, Sylvester Stallone, Jim Carrey, and so many more. Of course years ago it was not possible to diagnose ADHD and so there are many people in history who are believed to have had the disorder based upon written documentation that exists. Some famous people in history who are believed to have had Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder include Pablo Picasso, Alexander Graham Bell, Albert Einstein, Walt Disney, Christopher Columbus, Mozart, and Beethoven.

Having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is no reason to feel ashamed or inferior. In fact if your child has been diagnosed with the disorder it might be a good idea to let them discover just how many well-known and influential people have as well. When it comes to treating the symptoms of this common childhood disorder there are generally two schools of thoughts. One advocates the use of ADHD medication to control the symptoms while the other suggests a more natural approach involving dietary changes and homeopathic remedies. Considering the fact that many of the drugs used in treating the disorder are known to be rather dangerous and with harmful side-effects it is certainly advisable to consider the natural approach as your first course of action. By changing the diet of the ADHD child it has been shown to greatly improve the symptoms, allowing the child to function better and lead a normal and productive lifestyle. Teaching the child relaxation techniques as well as helping them to focus on some activity, such as a sport they enjoy, can greatly benefit them and help them to live life to the full.

Did You Know That There Are Many Famous People With ADHD Who Have Lead Productive Lives?

the lonely tree

Yes, there are many people with ADHD. Some have long since passed on into history but they have left their mark and we benefit from their contributions to the world and to society. Others are easily recognizable and are to be found in the acting and sports arenas, business world, etc. While there is still a stigma attached to anyone with a mental disorder it is worth giving your child who has been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder know that they actually share the spotlight with some very notable and noteworthy individuals. Some have even gone so far as to suggest that schools display information in the form of posters regarding those celebrities and other famous people who have or had ADHD in a bid to eliminate the stigma associated with the disorder.

There are around ten million adults in the United States living with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD. Given the strength of this number it really should come as no surprise that a significant number of those who are famous for whatever reason should also be included in that figure. When this disorder is not treated the individual will suffer with poor concentration and will struggle with being organized which can understandably lead to greater problems in the person's life.

Roughly sixty percent of children in the country who are diagnosed with ADHD will continue to experience the associated symptoms even once they have attained adulthood. Alarmingly many children who are ADHD will remain undiagnosed with a number of them only getting diagnosed once they have reached middle age.

For children diagnosed with this disorder famous people with ADHD can really help them to agree better as they recognize themselves in these celebrities. For example the Olympic swimming champion, Michael Phelps has ADHD and he has been reported as saying that he oftentimes felt stigmatized while he was growing up. This was exacerbated by the fact that he had to collect his meds from the school nurse every day until eventually he convinced his mom to let him go off the medication. He used his competitiveness in the swimming pool to help him focus himself and attributes that with learning to manage his Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In fact it has been shown that ADHD kids very often benefit from participating in competitive sports.

Other famous people with ADHD include actors and actresses such as: Whoopi Goldberg, Tom Cruise, Will Smith, Dakota Fanning, Robin Williams, Sylvester Stallone, Jim Carrey, and so many more. Of course years ago it was not possible to diagnose ADHD and so there are many people in history who are believed to have had the disorder based upon written documentation that exists. Some famous people in history who are believed to have had Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder include Pablo Picasso, Alexander Graham Bell, Albert Einstein, Walt Disney, Christopher Columbus, Mozart, and Beethoven.

Having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is no reason to feel ashamed or inferior. In fact if your child has been diagnosed with the disorder it might be a good idea to let them discover just how many well-known and influential people have as well. When it comes to treating the symptoms of this common childhood disorder there are generally two schools of thoughts. One advocates the use of ADHD medication to control the symptoms while the other suggests a more natural approach involving dietary changes and homeopathic remedies. Considering the fact that many of the drugs used in treating the disorder are known to be rather dangerous and with harmful side-effects it is certainly advisable to consider the natural approach as your first course of action. By changing the diet of the ADHD child it has been shown to greatly improve the symptoms, allowing the child to function better and lead a normal and productive lifestyle. Teaching the child relaxation techniques as well as helping them to focus on some activity, such as a sport they enjoy, can greatly benefit them and help them to live life to the full.

18 Types of Metaphors

MONTPARNASSE CEMETERY 9-21-2014 4-42-21 AM

The first extremely obvious question is – What is this darned metaphor? Another fancy name? Well… yes and no. It is fancy, but also effective. Charged with energy. Stuffed with genius. By definition, a metaphor is a figure of speech where two entirely dissimilar words or phrases are brought together to suggest a similarity. Confused? What are examples for?

All the world’s a stage

Yes, it’s Shakespeare and he is comparing the world to a stage. You generally don’t see the world as a stage, you see it… as the world, the earth, the mother; but not a stage. That is why it’s a metaphor. Because it has brought together two entirely unrelated things and made sense with it.

That was simple. But there is no peace, here starts the rollercoaster. (bet you won’t enjoy it right now)

1. Extended or telescoping metaphor or conceit

When your metaphoric insight has developed, then you cannot restrain yourself to just one metaphor. Like –

All the world’s a stage and men and women merely players.

This extension – “Men and women are merely players” has made this an extended metaphor. The author stretched “the world” and “a stage” by introducing parts of “the world” (men and women) and “a stage” (players). Of course, it has to make sense. You can’t extend it by comparing men and women to an ipod. Sounds distasteful? Exactly.

2. Metonym

When you’ve grown tired of clichéd words and are searching desperately for a word closely related to it that has not been used to death, that word is a metonym. A new word to replace an old one. Of course, an example. The pen is mightier than the sword. This saying in itself has become clichéd, but originally the thought was otherwise. Here, the pen stands for the freedom of expression and the sword for the power of authority. Now, if you said, freedom is greater than power, nobody would have said Wow. That’s why Pen and Sword instead of freedom and power.

3. Mixed metaphor

Some of us fail to create a good metaphor; such a twisted, out of tune metaphor is called a mixed metaphor.

The waves of emotion have punctured my heart.

Can waves puncture? They do in a nonsensical world, but most of us are still sane, but widely tolerable of nonsense and that is why such nonsense is given a modest name of mixed metaphor.

OK, for info’s sake – there are two kinds of mixed metaphors: permissible mixed metaphors and impermissible mixed metaphors. Never use impermissible ones, so that leaves me to explain only permissible ones.

Permissible mixed metaphors make sense even though the parts are not directly related.

We’ve weathered plenty of storms with an iron will.

There is no connection between weathering the storms and an iron will, still it sounds right.

4. Absolute metaphor

A perfect metaphor to show craziness and confusion. In an Absolute metaphor, the metaphor actually, really, truthfully, doesn’t make sense.

She broke upon a sad piece.

In today’s world of indistinctness, it is reigning absolute. Confuse them with your confusion.

There are two types of Absolute metaphor: Paralogical and antimetaphor.

5. Implied metaphor

Implied metaphor is an indirect metaphor where an implication to the whole is made.

Shut your trap.

He ruffled his feathers.

No bird and no mouth, just feathers and trap. Yeah, that’s implied.

6. Dead metaphor

Dead metaphors have been so overused that they have lost their individuality.

Face of the mountains

Crown of glory

Dead metaphors are mostly used as phrases and not as metaphors. Their association has died. Now, they are just phrases, although their names still remain. Take off your hats. It’s mourning time!

7. Dormant metaphor

Didn’t our teachers say that eating words in not good. Here it is again. When the meaning of a metaphor becomes unclear because the sentence has been shortened, then it is called a dormant metaphor.

He was blazing. (for whaat, if you please)

She flew towards her uncle. (why?)

They blew her off. (WHY?)

OK, it makes sense, but in itself, they don’t create the whole picture. Why chew words. Dormant, yes, they are sleeping. Hibernating. But still alive.

8. Synecdoche metaphor

The name looks scary, but it’s rather simple. In synecdoche metaphor, a part of the association is used instead of the object. For example feathers instead of bird or claws instead of crab. These associations are symbolic of the whole.

Her feet flapped like terrified wings.

9. Root metaphor

Root metaphors are named thus because from them numerous other metaphors can take birth. Also, they are generalizations like –

Time is money.

Make hay while the sun shines.

Etc etc.

10. Active metaphor

Active metaphors are new born so you will have to introduce them to the world. They are not familiar to the reader. That’s why it is better if they are explained clearly.

Her blinking love.

They mashed each other’s lives.

Any new metaphor that hasn’t been written before is an active metaphor.

11. Submerged metaphor

In a submerged metaphor, the first part of the metaphor or the vehicle is implied. For example: his winged dreams or her legged ambition.

12. Dying metaphor

It should have been named ‘rising from the dead metaphor’ or ‘the mummy metaphor’ because when you take out dead metaphors from the grave and use them in your writing, then they can’t be called dying. I don’t know what George Orwell was thinking when he coined the name. J Dying metaphors are clichéd metaphors like

Needle in a haystack

Achilles heel

A different ball game

13. Conceptual metaphor

This is hard, so read slowly. A conceptual metaphor has many metaphoric meanings in them. Their underlying meaning creates a novel thought or a universal concept. Life as journey is an old conceptual metaphor. This metaphor has universal appeal. It is not talking about a particular situation or a person. It stands true to every man.

Also, if you see life as a journey, then you can also use many other metaphors like

My life has just halted

I have reached crossroads.

I came into this world with no luggage.

So, Life is a journey is a conceptual metaphor.

14. Pataphor

Pataphors are metaphors that are stretched to such an extreme that they do not make sense. They are usually used to attract attention and introduce newness.

He put breaks on his fear, accelerated his anger and rammed into the house.

15. Simple or Tight metaphor

In simple metaphor, you don’t need to do much. Just cool it. There is nothing to cool except just it. On a serious note, in a simple metaphor, the relationship between the vehicle (cool) and the tenor (it) is very intimate (tight).

Duck (bow) down.

He is mad (crazy).

You’re a dinosaur (huge).

Usually, simple metaphors are very short. Just two or three words at most.

16. Implicit metaphor

Here, either the vehicle or the tenor is not specified clearly, but implied.

Shut your trap.

Watch your tongue.

Here, ‘trap’ and ‘tongue’ are used instead of mouth and words.

17. Compound or Loose metaphor

A compound metaphor is made of more than one similarity. In it, the writer extends a metaphor by using more than one association.

He ran towards the murderer, a wild beast with a beating heart.

The air smelt of fear, the fear of abandonment.

18. Complex metaphor

In a complex metaphor, you have a simple metaphor and his accomplice (not in crime). Instead of an explanation, an example would do better.

Let me throw some light on his character.

Here, “throw” is used for “light” that in itself is non-existent.

Eight Common Characteristics Famous Celebrities Have

Puerta en Macharaviaya (Málaga)

Celebrities come and go. They can either stay for a couple of years, but some fail to carve a niche in the entertainment industry and remain a starlet. Some are successful and become iconic in the music scene, television and movies.

You might be wondering why some of them have disappeared in the industry. If you observe their stellar status, the luckiest are those who share common characteristics that made them rich and famous.

Take a peek at the 8 common characteristics famous celebrities have in common. Find out if you have any of these traits that can be helpful in your chosen profession.

1. Strong determination and confidence. Celebrities are confident and determined to pursue their goal no matter what happens. They are the kind of people who do not care about what others say when they pose nude in a men’s magazine or wear a bizarre outfit. Getting out of poverty and to become famous are two things that prodded them to try their luck in Hollywood hoping that they could find the right people to help them in their budding career.

2. Their work ethic is infectious. Actors and singers are deprived of sleep as they have to stay awake until the following day to finish their commitment. They work hard not only because they know that they are highly compensated for their efforts, but because they want to leave a legacy when they are no longer active in the industry. Highest paid actors only spend 2 to 3 hours of sleep until their project is finished. But the prices they get from being workaholics can buy them a new house, a car, a set of jewelry and a swanky bag.

3. They work for the sake of art. Multi-awarded actors are choosy in their roles despite the high talent fee that they could receive for a particular project. Top caliber actors who have become financially stable would pick meaty roles that could earn them an Oscar award. They don’t mind if they have to go bald or topless for as long as the role will increase their level of creativity and transform them into a respected actor. Some celebrities accept roles that are challenging even if they don’t share the same billing stature with the main actors.

4. They are creative and unique. Famous Hollywood personalities defy the standard and social norms. They never stop creating and reinventing themselves to enable them to catch the public’s attention. Miley Cyrus, Madonna, J Lo, Michael Jackson and to name a few, had their own strings of gimmickry and controversy to promote their albums or movies. Even local artist in some key cities in the world do the same thing even if it could ruin their reputation and make them infamous. Defying the norm and ignoring their bashers is the best action that celebrities must do to succeed in their showbiz career. Gossips are part of showbiz and welcoming them with an open heart can make them stronger and better celebrities.

5. They think, believe and dream big. True artists think that there is no small role for them. Budding actors must heed what their veteran counterparts say that in order for them to be recognized and earn big, they should accept any role that can hone their acting prowess. Since the competition in the world of showbiz has become stiff, they must grab every opportunity that comes their way. Not unless they are products of reality shows or beauty contests, penetrating the entertainment industry is a bit hard. Changing their mindset from small to big things will inspire them to strive hard and make it big in showbiz.

6. They have a high emotional quotient. Although beauty and talent are important things to consider when discovering a new talent, movie directors and producers would prefer actors with a good work attitude. Celebrities who are acting like divas will most likely to lose their chance of getting the right break because their attitude can cause a lot of problems during location shooting. High EQ celebrities come to work before call time and they do not cause glitches or delay at work. They can mingle with anyone in the set from the director to the janitor. They can laugh at their own mistakes and can exchange jokes with their fellow workers, even if they have been sleepless for several nights. Most of all, they welcome strangers and mobbing fans for autograph and photo ops.

7. They enjoy every bit of their work. Become passionate about your work as an artist in the real sense of the word will give you more inspiration to hone your craft. Celebrities who are enjoying their career are the one who will become successful as they do not get discouraged when failure comes in one point of their lives.

8. Money and fame are only secondary. These two things that can lead to frustration if celebrities are unable to achieve them. Some famous celebrities who are getting less projects and their fans are ignoring them have become depressed and suicidal. This is because they think that money and fame are the most important things in life. But the truth is, any career that is taken with passion can be a great source of your finances if you know how to save your money.

Celebrities who have lost their careers because of their bad attitude have realized that becoming famous and wealthy does not happen overnight. They have to learn the traits that could propel their popularity and eventually land them a lot of projects.

Aspiring actors/actresses who are given the break should realize that the competition is so high in the industry. A single flaw is observed from you could put you down and it would be too late to realize that a newcomer will soon replace your position in showbiz. Getting rich quick is a mere fantasy as you need to start from scratch, and when you are already at the top of your success, remain humble and grounded.