Tag: actor

The 4 Stages of the Counseling Process: What Every Youth Counselor Should Know

Trieste from Conconello before sunset. Italy [EXPLORE 28/08/2014]

There is a natural progression that takes place within the context of the helping relationship. This process enables you and the person you are working with to build a relationship, assess the situation, set goals and come up with a plan to bring about your desired results. This progression is known as the counseling process. There are four stages of the counseling process. They are: developing a relationship, making an informed assessment, establishing mutually agreed upon goals and objectives and developing an implementation plan.

Phase 1. Developing A Relationship

In order to develop positive helping relationships with youth, you’ve got to be able to connect with them. This can only happen when youth are made to feel like you genuinely care about their well-being and that you understand where they are coming from. It’s about behaving in a way that demonstrates the core conditions of genuineness, respect and empathy.

To develop solid relationships with youth, you need to create a safe environment where young people will feel comfortable enough to open up to you and talk to you about anything that is on their minds. You also need to help youth see that despite their circumstances they have strengths. In short, you should start things off from a strengths-based perspective.

Questions to Consider When Trying to

Develop A Relationship

· In what ways can you build better relationships with the youth in your program?

· If there are youth who are not actively engaged, what can you do differently to engage them?

· If a youth is resistant, what steps can you take to reduce resistance?

· What worked in the past with resistant youth?

· How do you know when you’ve built a solid relationship with a youth? Could you use these indicators to strengthen your relationships with other youth?

Phase 2. Making An Informed Assessment

An informed assessment happens when both you and the youth gather information in order to figure out what’s “really” going on so that you can assess what needs to happen next in order to change the situation for the better or build up the youth’s coping skills to better deal with a problematic situation. The first step in making an assessment is to find out if change is necessary, and if it is what needs to happen for change to take place. If you have determined that change is necessary, then the next step is to figure out what needs to change. Is it a behavior? An attitude? A situation?

A good assessment can provide an opportunity for a young person to see how his/her behavior or attitude might be contributing to an undesirable or unhealthy situation. Assessment is an ongoing process. You need to regularly check in with your youth to see how things are going. Reassessments enable you to ensure that you and the youth are on the right track.

How do you gather information in order to make an informed assessment? You can gather information in a number of ways: talking with youth, observing the youth’s behavior and interactions, discussions with other people who are involved in the young person’s life, and reading any documented information on the young person. Keep in mind that when utilizing someone else’s verbal or written report as a source of background information, you run the risk of subjecting yourself to their biases and assumptions.

Points to Keep In Mind When Making An Assessment

· Be aware of your biases and how they impact on the assessments you make.

· Involve youth in the assessment process.

· Don’t rely on one single source to make an assessment, gather as much information as you can from a variety of sources.

· Don’t automatically label a behavior as dysfunctional because you don’t understand it, or it is not germane to your culture.

· Make sure to point out a young person’s strengths even when addressing problematic behavior.

Phase 3. Establishing Mutually Agreed Upon Goals and Objectives

Why is it important to establish “mutually agreed” upon goals and objectives? Because if a young person is in agreement with the goals then he/she is more likely to follow through on them. When a youth is actively involved in the goal setting process and is in agreement with the goals, then he/she is more inclined to take ownership of the goals. What are goals? Goals are broad statements that identify what you want to accomplish. Think of goals as the end result that you are trying to achieve. While goals are broad statements that identify what you want to accomplish overall, objectives are the measurable steps that you take to achieve your goals. For example if you have a goal that states, “youth will be better able to manage her anger.” One of your objectives might be, “youth will recognize emotional triggers that lead to angry outbursts and use positive, self-talk to calm herself down.” Your objectives should always be concrete and measurable. They should also be derived from the overall goal.

Questions to Consider When Developing

Goals and Objectives

· What do you and the young person want to achieve?

· How are you going to achieve it?

· When do you want to achieve your stated goal?

· What obstacles do you anticipate?

· How will you address these obstacles?

· How will you use to measure and monitor progress?

· Are your goals realistic?

Phase 4. Implementation Plan

The implementation plan is a plan that you and the youth work on together. It is designed to prevent, intervene, or address unhealthy behaviors and practices. The implementation plan identifies who will perform the activities, where the activities will occur, how frequently they will occur, how they will be carried out and when they will be carried out. Implementation activities are designed to help individuals re-think risky behavior, work through problematic issues, address unhealthy lifestyles practices, learn new skills and build strengths. Implementation activities can include: counseling, crisis intervention, training and education, supportive services, concrete services and constructive use of free time.

As you can see, each stage of the counseling process builds upon the former. As you move through each stage, you will come to realize that it takes patience and practice to counsel youth effectively, but if you are committed to the goal you’ll do just fine. You may not feel completely confident in your ability as a counselor, but as you expand your knowledge base, gain more experience and strengthen your helping skills, you will become a more effective counselor.

Copyright © 2006 by Cassandra Mack

Excerpted from Cassandra Mack’s book, “Smart Moves That Successful Youth Workers Make”

Asian Gambling Basics

Lone Tree, Snowdonia

Gambling became popular in China in the last phase of the imperial dynasty i.e. from 1644 to 1912. Canton, Macao, Shanghai and Hong Kong became the famous for their liquor and gambling. These areas inhabited foreigners, usually Americans, who were known to be rough. Moreover, majority of these inhabitants were males. Chinese natives indulged in gambling along with the foreigners.

Famous gambling games in China include Mah Jongg and Pai Gow.

Pia Gow consists of a bank having one woodpile. The banking duties are entrusted to one of the players. Other players are given four tiles of the woodpile, which they have to group in pairs of two such that the player’s pair should have a greater value than the bank. If the player succeeds then he wins the bet. A lot of money can exchange hands over this game.

Mah Jongg, meaning ‘sparrow’ is an ancient game which was developed primarily for the rich class of China. The game is said to have been invented by a fisherman to prevent sea sickness. It is said that the fisherman invented this game to distract the other fishermen from the surroundings, so that they do not feel sea sick in the middle of the sea. Later, a Chinese general heard of the game and engaged his soldiers in it at night to prevent them from falling asleep. The game underwent a lot of variations and every region called it with a different name. Finally, the game was standardized in early 1990s. the game consists of 136 to 144 tiles depending on the whether the players choose to play with flowers or seasons. The play resembles rummy except for the fact that the game is played with tiles. The game also uses a pair of dice and chips to keep the score. It requires four players, the aim of each being to obtain a set of tiles. The set types that are permitted are “kong”, “pung” and “chow”. A complete hand contains four sets and a pair of similar tiles. The fist one to have this combination of fourteen tiles wins.

Another game is Sci Bo, meaning ‘two dice’. This game is a betting game with players betting on the total of their dice. It is played with three dice. The bets include small bets that is the total may fall; between the range of four to ten, or big bets i.e. the total may fall between eleven to seventeen. The players shake the dice in a cup and keep the cup upside down with the dice hidden in the cup. Wagers are then made on the outcome. The player guessing the total can earn hugs sums. It is rumored that skilful players can predict the total by hearing the clanking of dice in the cup. In casinos the entire game is mechanized. Bets are placed on the number marked on the table. The dice are then shaken using a vibrating platform. The results are displayed on a screen. Other famous gambling games include Keno and Pachinko.

Despite the popularity of these gambling games, not all Chinese states are ready to legalize it. While Macao has legalized gambling, Shanghai carries it on illegally. In Hong Kong, only horse raising is legalized and The Hong Kong Jockey Club earns huge revenue.

Good Guitar Chords For A Love Song – How to Write a Love Song On Guitar

Crypt of San Minato al Monte - Florence

If you are looking for good guitar chords for a love song then I would certainly suggest using minor chords somewhere in the progression because minor chords tend to set the correct tone, however it isn’t completely necessary.

Let’s take look at 2 very popular love songs and see why. Bryan Adams has written 2 hit songs, ‘Heaven’ and ‘Everything I do’. Now if you were to ask me, I would say that both these songs would have strong minor chords, but surprisingly only one of them does, and the thing is that the song I would have put money on being mainly minor chords, ‘Everything I do’ actually only has 1 minor chord.

‘Everything I Do’ has only 4 chords – A, D, G and Em so it’s the melody of the vocals and lyric that provides the strong love song element to the piece. It’s a great song to play just on acoustic guitar because of the simplicity of the song but you can also play it on electric guitar and it will still sound quite good.

‘Heaven’ again has very a very strong vocal arrangement with emotional lyrics and is more of a rock ballad than ‘Everything I do.’ The guitar chord sequence has 2 minor chords and are as follows – Am, Dm, C, F, G. Again it’s a nice song to play just on acoustic guitar but the chorus does lend itself to power chords so if you want to play it you may need to change the arrangement slightly.

If you are trying to write your own love song then I suggest firstly using chords that have already been laid down for you and then adapting the chord sequence to fit your song. So think about a classic love song that you like or why not try using the chords the chords from either of the two songs we have looked at in this article? Try not to use too many cliches in your lyrics as you’ll find that your song is less appealing, so do your best to come up with some original lines.

Online Writing Contest – Competition Tips – How to Win Every Contest You Enter

Arcobaleno / Rainbow

So you’ve stumbled across an online writing competition / contest, or perhaps your favourite brand of cereal is offering you a chance to win a holiday around the world. All you have to do is tell them in 25 words or less why you want it. And you want to win, right?

Well believe it or not there are a small number of easy steps you can take to dramatically increase the odds in your favor. And here they are, free of charge just because I’m such a nice guy…

No Sob Stories!

This tip goes first on the list, because it is the most important. For some reason the first thing that seems to come to people’s minds with these contests and competitions is “how can I get them to pity me?” It sounds like a great plan as an entrant, but speaking from personal experience as a judge in these contests, I can tell you that it’s a complete turnoff.

Nonetheless people will try ever trick in the book…

We can’t pay the rent… our house burnt down… everybody in my family has cancer… I need 16 operations so that my dog stops being depressed and I can have my leg re-attached then pay the rent and burn the house down… well you get the point.

Let me make it very clear – this tactic does not work, even if you are telling the truth, because:

1. Judges can’t verify your claims, so anyone can make up any story they like.

2. After a while these entries become so numerous and laborious that they don’t stand out.

All that you will do is send the judge into a depression spiral. More to the point, you will end up highlighting your competitors’ entries because theirs are more enjoyable to read.

Be Creative and Make it Fun to Read

Depending on the number of entrants, judges can often have a lot of text to read. As their head slumps closer and closer to the desk and the coffee starts to wear off, your entry is going to need to have something special about it to get noticed. The best thing you can do is get creative. And I mean really thinking outside of the box (if you are thinking poetry right now, you are not thinking hard enough).

My advice to you here is simple. If you come up with something different and make it really stand out, and MAKE IT FUNNY, you will win. When I hear a fellow judge burst out into laughter at his or her desk, 9 times out of 10 he or she is reading the winner. I can usually even tell which entry they are reading because I had the same reaction when I first read it.

If you can manufacture a reaction like this, chances are you are on a winner. I suggest using your friends and family as test dummies here. If they end up in a ball rolling around the floor you’ve done your job. If the best you get is “not bad”, “(chuckle) very good” or even “looks good to me”, then you need to go back to the drawing board.

Now that’s not to say every winner will be comical or humorous, but your entry needs to stand out as somehow being impressive or interesting.

Stick to the Rules and Stay on Topic

If I had a penny for every time a “words or less” entry broke the rules, I would currently be Bahamas and you would be on your own with this one. Take the time to read the rules, terms and conditions before entering. And if you are provided with a quick-start guide to entering a competition, read it over at least 3 times and make sure you take the advice onboard.

In general, you should always:

· Stay within the word limit

· Write in direct response to the competition’s question or topic (really important!)

· Avoid coarse language

· Submit your entry in the language requested

Short, Sharp, Shiny

Just because you are allowed to use 25 words doesn’t mean you should. If your entry says what you want it to say, don’t fill up the rest of your word limit by repeating yourself or adding useless details. All you end up doing is diluting your message.

Polish It!

So it took you 5 minutes (or maybe 2 days) to create your entry. Would another 5 minutes of proofreading kill you? No, of course not, but it will definitely help you win. Check your grammar, check your punctuation, check your capitalization and check your spelling. Presentation makes your entry easier to read, and will greatly improve your chances.

Submit It

It sounds obvious, doesn’t it? But how many times have you seen a competition you would like to enter, only to let the due date slip by? As the saying goes, you’ve got to be in it to win it. And if you use the advice I’ve just given you, your chances of coming out on top will greatly improve.

So what are you waiting for?

Famous Theme Parks in Florida

Sissinghurst Castle and Garden - The Famous White Garden

Florida is known world-wide as a fun vacationland. For those of you who have not had the pleasure of visiting the Orlando / Kissimmee area, here's whats waiting for you.

Walt Disney World, which includes the Magic Kingdom, Epcot, Animal Kingdom, and the Disney-MGM Studios. The Magic Kingdom is the king of theme parks, divided into seven distinct areas, and is known as 'The Happiest Place on Earth' by every kid from three to 103. It draws more visitors than any other theme park in the world. Epcot (Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow) is like taking a vacation to the best sights in 11 different countries, as well as being able to participate in interactive presentations and view the latest in cutting-edge technology. Epcot is divided into two parks – Future World, which focuses on science andventions, and technology from both the past and the future, and The World Showcase, which features a variety of countries celebrating their culture, history and cuisine. The Animal Kingdom is a vast assortment of more than 1,000 animals in a beautiful 500-acre park that transports visitors to exotic locales and leaves them with a renewed respect for our Earth and its habitants.

Disney-MGM Studios is a creative theme park devoted to bringing the magic of movies, television, radio and Broadway plays to life in an educational and fun environment.

Universal Studios Florida is creative, highly energetic, action park. This is a place where you can totally immerse yourself in the land of movies and television. You can go on exciting thrill rides or go behind the scenes or jump right into the action of some of your favorite films. The City Walk area is Universal's shopping and dining complex – with everything from rock concerts and jazz to gourmet dining or causal fare.

Islands of Adventure is a high-tech theme park that is especially popular with families with small children and teens. Do battle with comic book heroes defy gravity, ride the white water rapids, and experience the world's first inverted, dual roller coaster. Islands of Adventure is five adventure parks in one, from Marvel Superhero Island to Toon Lagoon, there is a different ride for young and old – something for just about everyone to enjoy.

SeaWorld Orlando is a marine-world adventure park with amazing animal encounters, world-class shows and thrilling rides. Guests can explore the mysteries of the sea and interact with marine life, or experience new state-of-the-art water rides with special effects. Nine restaurants are available at SeaWorld, ranging from full-service to cafeteria-style. Rides and Attractions include shows and animal attractions, thrill rides, and other special attractions like the kids' play area with a splashy water maze and slippery slides. The Shamu Adventure, hosted by Jack Hanna, is one of the most famous animal attractions ever presented. It has trains and killer whales performing astounding feats with dazzling theatrical effects to a rock 'n' roll beat. The Odyssea is a 30-minute show that transports guests to the depths of the ocean. Clyde and Seamore Take Pirate Island is SeaWorld's comical tale of pirate adventures, along with help from Clyde the sea lion. Blue Horizons is a show with acrobatic dolphins. Other wonderful animal encounters include Penguin Encounter, Tropical Rain Forest, Dolphin Cove, Turtle Point and Manatee Rescue. SeaWorld is also home to the fastest, longest, tallest and only floorless roller coaster in the region. Journey to Atlantis combines a roller coaster / water ride with dazzling special effects. Wild Arctic is a motion-based, jet helicopter flight to a remote research station on the Arctic where you come face to face with real beluga whales, walruses and two polar bears named Klondike and Snow.

The Holy Land Experience takes you back 3000 years to the land of the Bible. It is an educational, inspirational, theatrical and historical presentation. It authentically recreates the city of Jerusalem and its religious importance between the years 1450 BC and AD 66 with sights, sounds and tastes. There are several indoor and outdoor exhibits and activities recreating the time when Jesus lived. Attractions include the Scriptorium museum, built in fourth-century Byzantine architectural style, houses the finest private collection of authentic biblical artifacts and antiquities in the world. Inside are ancient cuneiform, scrolls, manuscripts and Bibles – many of which are extremely rare or the only known copies in existence. Each treasured piece is exhibited in the historical and geological environment out of which it came. Exhibits include an exact replica of the Garden Tomb where the body of Jesus Christ was buried. A massive archway is the grand entrance to the Plaza of Nations, which houses the imposing Temple of the Great King, a place held in the highest reverence among the Jewish people. There are also a lot of fun activities for children at the Oasis Outpost, including a 25-foot climbing wall or you can dig for artifacts in a sandy desert.

There are a lot of wonderful places to see in Florida, so make sure Orlando is part of your itinerary.

The Purpose of the Science Fiction Novel

Bookish

Where fantasy goes into uncharted territory, the kind of story that could not exist, science fiction, a term made famous by the likes of Philip K. Dick, Isaac Asimov, and Robert Heinlein, goes into charted territory. Let's make sense of that last statement: Science fiction is based on truths, questions of reality, and questions of survival. Its purpose is to go where other fiction can not. Unlike horror, it tells something far more dangerous because it could happen. Unlike mystery, there is not always someone at the other end of the gun, maybe "something" instead. Like mainstream work, it proposes fascinating philosophies on mankind in the past, present, and future.

When reporters talked of space stations maybe they were onto something. When Star Trek characters could talk to each other on small, hand-held phones, most thought it was too good to be true. Now we have cell phones, computers that can talk, computers that can think in some ways, and a variety of other ideas that were often suggested in science fiction.

But the science fiction novel has its own place outside of the realm of Star Trek and Star Wars. For one, the legend must be created in words, not film or TV images. Second, the writers behind it are often as much philosophers as authors. Lastly, science fiction is its own frontier, a place for free thinking.

The thesis for all this would be that the science fiction novel engages a reader in a "This is how it could happen." The purpose is, as in all writing, to say something different. Long before "War of the Worlds" and even longer before Star Trek and Star Wars, people looked to the skies with hope, emboldening their legends with all kinds of flying creatures-angels, demons, sometimes aliens-who could do things they could not . That is exactly the purpose of the modern science fiction novel-it says we, the human race, can do something that right now we can not.

The final purpose of the science fiction novel is always to make a mark on society. Star Trek could only go so far. When one looks at a science fiction novel, however, sometimes it seemsingly is a race to the finish instead of a treat on life in the future. Something is always happening; it happens fast. Take Philip K. Dick, for example, who once wrote 11 novels in 2 years (he used various drugs, much like Hunter Thompson, to improve writing speed). However, there is nothing superficial about the science fiction novel. This is because even films have a hard time capturing the legion of ideas presented in the classics, like "The Man In the High Castle," Philip K. Dick's best novel. If any film does capture the purpose of science fiction, it's "Blade Runner," considered to be one of the best films of all time, based on the Philip K. Dick story "Do Andods Dream of Electric Sheep?"

Where it can be hard to pin down the modern science fiction novel, it can easily be seen that writing one can be a lucid ride into the unexplored. One of the best in recent memory is "Hyperion," a science fiction novel that won the famous Hugo award. Here, Simmons explored what is real, much like Philip K. Dick, and did it as though he was poet, forming a tale of seven pilgrims to a far away world, much like "The Canterbury Tales."

Some of the finest novels of the 20th century were labeled "junk" because they explored taboo subjects or had sexually revealing covers. Without the likes of Philip K. Dick, Isaac Asimov, Robert Heinlein, and the hundreds of other talents, maybe there would have been no Star Trek, Star Wars, or Battlestar Galactica. Without the junk science fiction novel bought for a nickel in the 1940s and 50s maybe mankind would never have dreamed of stepping on the moon in the 1960s.

The Best Computer For Graphic Design

Blu Cruise Fish

Since Desktop Publishing (DTP) came out in the eighties, graphic designers have been utilizing computer technology. This has pushed all graphic designers to become competent with computer hardware at the very least.

What is Desktop Publishing (DTP)? In the 1980s, it was a common term applied to digital publishing systems. These systems were developed to replace large, pre-press, specialist design and compositing systems.

Graphic designers are very heavy on computers whether these are Windows PCs or Apple Macs. Whichever computer a graphic designer chooses to use, he / she will opt for the best computer that he / she can purchase. Graphic designers will rarely choose cheap computer hardware.

Back in the eighties, Macs were the only choice for designing and printing. Almost all design layout and graphics software was developed for Macs only or even if the software could be used in Microsoft Windows PC, it was much more reliable on a Mac. Additionally, at that time, Macs were associated with the different technologies used in the prepress and Windows PC was just not a practical choice. Today, modern versions of Mac OS X and Windows allow graphics designers to use design software either in a Mac or PC – they are no longer forced to choose one over the other.

Many graphic designers are not IT experts and making a decision on which computer to buy can be quite daunting. Of course, if money is not a problem, the decision would simply be to buy the most expensive Apple Mac or Windows PC. But most designers can not afford to do that. In fact, some creative professionals have budgets for second hand equipment only. What really matters to these graphic designers are issues that regular computer users do not even have to think about. These are printer color accuracy, monitor calibration, hard disk speed and external storage devices for gigabytes of data.

Recent studies show that the top 5 computers for graphic design are a mix of Macs and PCs and both laptop and desktop computers fall in this category. But just like any product that a consumer buys, it really is the personal preference of the designer whether he / she will use a desktop computer or a laptop. The important thing is that the user / graphic designer has the appropriate software for the type of computer that he / she wants to purchase.

The Top 5 computers for graphic design are:

Mac Pro Desktop

The Mac line of computers is still broadly preferred by most graphic designers. According to Apple, the latest Mac Pro features the all new quad-core Intel Xeon "Nehalen" processor which makes the job of a graphic designer much easier. Apple states further that the new Mac Pro is up to 1.9 times faster than its predecessor. Each processor has an integrated memory controller that allows the processors to have faster access to stored data in the computer's memory, with memory latency decreed by up to 40 percent. This feature will save a lot of time for designers when they do their work.

MacBook Pro Laptop

The MacBook Pro Laptop comes in 13, 15 and 17 inch sizes. It has high-performance NVDIA graphics and LED backlit display which makes editing graphics easier and clearer. This latest model has battery power that lasts up to 8 hours (on 17-inch version). It is powered by the Intel Core 2 Duo processor.

Dell Studio XPS Desktop

The Dell Studio XPS Desktop features the Intel Core i5 and i7 processors. If you plan on working with intensive video or 3D editing, you can have an upgrade to the 16GB Dual Channel DDR3 SDRAM. But its base 3GB memory will enable you to edit photos, create vector or raster designs with ease. Its high-definition ATI graphics card creates clear, accurate and flawless graphics – just what a graphic designer needs.

Toshiba Qosmio Laptop

The Toshiba Qosimo is an affordable solution to your graphic design needs. It is powered by either the Intel Core i7 or i5 processor making it easier to create flawless graphics. It has a high-end NVIDIA GeForce graphics card, which ensures that you can clearly see every pixel and frame that you edit. It has a 6GB DDR3 1066MHz memory and a 1GB GDDR5 discrete graphics memory.

HP Pavilion Elite Desktop

The HP Pavilion Elite Desktop is an affordable computer. It is powered by either an AMD Athlon or an Intel Core processor that ranges from an X4 630 quad-core (Athlon) to an i7-980X six-core Extreme Edition (Intel). All HP Pavilion Elite Desktop computers come with genuine 64-bit Windows 7 for the latest technology. Memory ranges from 4GB up to 9GB which guarantees smooth and effortless run of the high-end graphics that you use.

What Makes a Person Intelligent?

Famous Writer

In traditional intelligence theories when one is asked the question “What makes a person intelligent?” the most common responses will often note a person’s ability to solve problems, utilize logic, and think critically. These typical traits of intelligence are sometimes grouped together under the heading “raw intelligence”. A person’s intelligence, traditionally speaking, is contained in their intellect. In other words, how we each understand, evaluate or respond to external stimuli, regardless as to whether it is a mathematical problem or anticipation of an opponent’s next move in a game, is our collective intelligence. Our intelligence therefore, is our individual, collective ability to act or react in a continually changing environment.

The principal problem in traditional intelligence theories is that they promote “fractured learning”. Many educational reformers have clearly stated that “taking tests merely shows that a student is skilled at taking tests”. At best, traditional tests focus on only about one tenth of an individual’s intellect. Note that Albert Einstein and Thomas Edison, two of history’s most famous examples of brilliant minds, were terrible at taking traditional tests, therefore terrible at “school” in general. Multiple Intelligences theory then, demonstrates that the ability to take traditional tests is almost entirely in the realm of the Logical – Mathematical

intelligence. This intelligence will be detailed later along with the Interpersonal intelligence, which imparts in some students the ability to second guess a teacher’s structuring of a test. Traditional IQ tests predict school performance with considerable accuracy, but they are only an indifferent predictor of performance in a profession after formal schooling.

In an interesting but controversial study conducted during the 1960’s by Biologist Marion Diamond, of the University of California at Berkeley, two sets of rats were raised in different environments; One set had toys to play with, playmates to romp with and a roomy box that was kept clean and fresh. The second set was put in solitary confinement; all alone in a much smaller cage with no toys to enjoy. After several weeks, Diamond measured the size of each rat’s cerebral cortex, the brain area which is responsible for higher nerve functions. The rats in the sociable, clean and stimulating environment grew brains bigger than the rats with the impoverished surroundings. “Does the enriched environment increase the dimensions of the brain, and does the impoverished environment decrease the dimensions of the brain?”, asked Diamond. “The answer, very clearly, is YES.” Similar results were replicated with cats, monkeys and later with humans. So a stimulating, enriched learning environment is crucial to mental development. If we likewise incorporate the varying student intelligences in our teaching activities, our success as well as our students success, will be markedly improved. That each of us possess all the intelligences, that they can each be developed further, that these multiple intelligences work together in a complex manner, and that there are, in fact, many different ways to be “intelligent” are inclusive in a study by Armstrong. Here briefly, in retrospect, are eight of the major intelligences of Howard Gardener’s theory and their relative traits:

Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence:

The capacity to use words effectively, either orally or in writing. It is highly developed in story-tellers, orators, politicians, poets, playwrights, editors, language teachers and journalists. Students with a high degree of this intelligence think in words; learn by listening, reading, and verbalizing. They enjoy writing, like books, records, and tapes, and have a good memory for verse, lyrics, or trivia. Getting into discussions, telling jokes and debating are also characteristics of this intelligence. Maya Angelou is strong in this intelligence.

Visual-Spatial Intelligence:

The ability to perceive the world accurately and to perform transformations upon one’s perceptions. This is highly developed in guides, interior designers, architects, artists, fashion designers and inventors. Students with a high degree of spatial intelligence think in images and pictures, like mazes and jigsaw puzzles. They like to draw and design things, and enjoy films, slides, videos, diagrams, maps, charts. The daydreamers and those who may have strong opinions about such things as colors that go together, textures that are appropriate and pleasing and decorating are included in this intelligence. Pablo Picasso was strong in this intelligence.

Musical – Rhythmic Intelligence: The capacity to perceive, discriminate, transform, and express musical forms is most highly developed in musical performers, music aficionados, and music critics. Students with a high degree of musical intelligence learn through rhythm and melody, play a musical instrument, or May need music to study. They notice nonverbal sounds in the environment: the chirp of a cricket, rain on the roof, varying traffic patterns, and usually learn things more easily if sung, tapped out, or whistled. These people love music and rhythmic patterns and can often reproduce a melody or rhythmic pattern after hearing it only once. Various sounds, tones, and rhythms may have a visible effect on them (that is, you can see a change in facial expressions, body movement, or emotional responses). They enjoy singing and listening to a wide variety of music, and are often quite skilled at mimicking sounds, language accents, and others’ speech patterns, and recognizing different musical instruments in a composition. Paul McCartney is strong in this intelligence.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence:

The capacity to use numbers effectively and to reason well. This intelligence is highly developed in mathematicians, tax accountants, statisticians, scientists, computer programmers, and logicians. Students with a high degree of this intelligence often reason things out logically and clearly; look for abstract patterns and relationships; frequently like brain teasers, logical puzzles, and strategy games. They also like to use computers and to classify and categorize. These people think conceptually and abstractly and are able to see patterns and relationships that others often miss. They like to experiment, solve puzzles and other problems, ask cosmic questions and think. They love the challenge of complex problems to solve and always have a logical rationale or argument for what they are doing or thinking. Albert Einstein was strong in this intelligence.

Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence: Consists of expertise in using one’s whole body to express ideas and feelings, and facility in using ones hands to produce or transform things. A highly developed intelligence in actors, mimes, athletes, dancers, sculptors, mechanics, and surgeons. Students with a high degree of bodily-kinesthetic intelligence process knowledge through bodily sensations; move, twitch, tap, or fidget while sitting in a chair or at a desk and learn by touching, manipulating, and moving. They typically like role playing and creative movement and generally like physical games of all kinds and demonstrating how to do something. They communicate well through body language and other physical gestures. They can often perform a task only after seeing someone else do it. They find it difficult to sit still for a long time and are easily bored if they are not actively involved in what is going on around them. Michael Jordan is strong in this intelligence.

Interpersonal Intelligence:

The ability to perceive and make distinctions in the moods, intentions, motivations, and feelings of other people. This Intelligence can include sensitivity to facial expressions, voice, and gestures, as well as the ability to respond effectively to such cues. Students with a high degree of interpersonal intelligence understand and care about people; like to socialize; learn more easily by relating and cooperating and are good at teaching other students. These people learn through person-to-person interaction. They generally have lots of friends; show a great deal of empathy for other people and understanding of different points of view. They are skilled at drawing others out in a discussion, conflict resolution and mediation when people are in radical

opposition to each other. Mother Teresa and Mahatma Gandhi were strong in this intelligence.

Intra-personal Intelligence:

Self-knowledge and the ability to act adaptively on the basis of that knowledge define this group. This is an intelligence which can include having an accurate picture of one’s strengths and limitations, awareness of one’s moods and motivations, and the capacity for self-discipline. Students with a high degree of this intelligence seem to be self-motivating; need their own quiet space; may march to the beat of a different drummer and tend to learn more easily with independent study, self-paced instruction, individualized projects and games.

These people like to work alone and sometimes shy away from others. They are self-reflective and self-aware and thus tend to be in tune with their inner feelings, values, beliefs, and thinking processes. They are frequently bearers of creative wisdom and insight, are highly intuitive, and are inwardly motivated rather than needing external rewards to keep them going. They are often strong-willed, self-confident, and definite, well-thought-out opinions on almost any issue (although they are sometimes off-the-wall). Other people will often come to them for advice and counsel, but others will sometimes view them as distant or weird. Emily Dickinson and Stephen King are examples of this intelligence.

Naturalist Intelligence:

Environmental knowledge and the ability to identify and categorize plants, animals and nature on the basis of that knowledge. The Naturalist Intelligence can include having an accurate picture of the ambient environment, awareness of the interrelationship of natural elements, and the capacity for self-analysis of these elements. It is found most highly developed in archeologists, animal handlers, animal trainers, veterinarians, biologists, racehorse jockeys, zoologists, environmentalists, wilderness guides and naturalists. Students who have a high degree of the naturalist intelligence seem to be nature-oriented, seek to be outdoors or in the elements and learn more easily with nature-related study and environmental projects and activities. They like to collect items from nature, study them, and group them. They tend to be aware of subtleties in appearance, texture, and sounds that those weaker in this intelligence may not grasp. Charles Darwin, Jacques Cousteau, and John James Audubon were strong in this intelligence.

One of the great promises of Multiple Intelligences theory in education is that it will help us to find individual pathways into and out of our students’ minds. Recent advances in educational psychology and research in applied MI theory offer educators a real possibility of developing the potential of all students. Both educators and students should derive from Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence theory that all people are different and learn differently, and that we should respect, value, and nurture that diversity.

Reference Websites:

Reference website for multiple intelligences links and activities:

[http://surfaquarium.com/im.htm]

Exploring Multiple Intelligences: New Dimensions of Learning

[http://www.multi-intell.com/]

Multiple Intelligences Resources

http://www.theatreinmotion.com/resources.htm

Basic MI Theory

http://edweb.gsn.org/edref.mi.th.html

Multiple Intelligence Theory: Principles

http://www.harding.edu/~cbr/midemo/prin.html

Multiple Intelligences: Theory and Practice in the K-12 Class

[http://www.indiana.edu/~eric_rec/ieo/bibs/multiple.html]

Task Card Overview/Multiple Intelligences

[http://www.metronet.com/~bhorizon/teach.htm]

Association for the Promotion and Advancement of Science Education activities website – http://discoverlearning.com/forensic/docs/index.html

Naturalist Intelligence – Sea World / Busch Gardens website for students

http://www.seaworld.org/animal_bytes/animal_bytes.html

Famous People

Crypt of San Minato al Monte - Florence

Generally speaking, a superstar is someone who seeks media attention and the largest part recently has an vociferous personality. The want to be noticeable is obscure by more or less to be a part of Western culture and more specifically the American Dream as a quantity of accomplishment. A superstar with the aim of shys away from the freely available eye or keeps a very separate secretive life is called a conductor superstar. At the other put an end to of the spectrum, a superstar with the aim of seeks unfashionable publicity instead of him- or herself is often called a media tart, but lone with the aim of uses his or her secretive life as a vehicle instead of enhanced superstar status, now and again desperately, is referred to as media whore. Examples of this are fake or clarify relationships, truth television appearances, superstar nudity and in extreme hand baggage, scandal or superstar sexual characteristics tapes.

There are a broad range of ways make somewhere your home can turn into celebrities, from their profession, appear in the throng media, beauty or even by complete accident or notoriety. Instant superstar is the name with the aim of is used as someone becoming a superstar in very curt era of phase.

Indoors more or less seats, someone with the aim of one way or another achieves a small amount of transient fame through propaganda or throng media, is stereotyped as a B-grade superstar. Often the stereotype extends to someone with the aim of cascade curt of mainstream or persistent fame but seeks to reach or exploit it.

Indoors the 20th Century, the avid freely available lure instead of celebrations and hunger instead of superstar gossip has seen the arise of the gossip correspondent, tabloid, paparazzi and superstar blogging.

Just as lone possibly will turn into a regional or cultural superstar, lone possibly will additionally turn into a superstar in their niche marketplace and hold partial fame apart from it. Stan Lee (best notorious as co-creator of the classic Marvel superheroes) is mostly notorious to comic volume fans and while in last years, he has turned into more well notorious, many outside fandom are still unsure of exactly who he is, other than being a voice.

One possibly will appeal with the aim of all celebrities are niche marketplace celebrities, more or less niches are simply much better than others and many celebrities win fame apart from their niche marketplace as well. A first-rate model can be seen surrounded by the numerous specialized athletes with the aim of are well notorious even surrounded by make somewhere your home who organize not get the gist sports.

Eight Common Characteristics Famous Celebrities Have

Splash of Colour

Celebrities come and go. They can either stay for a couple of years, but some fail to carve a niche in the entertainment industry and remain a starlet. Some are successful and become iconic in the music scene, television and movies.

You might be wondering why some of them have disappeared in the industry. If you observe their stellar status, the luckiest are those who share common characteristics that made them rich and famous.

Take a peek at the 8 common characteristics famous celebrities have in common. Find out if you have any of these traits that can be helpful in your chosen profession.

1. Strong determination and confidence. Celebrities are confident and determined to pursue their goal no matter what happens. They are the kind of people who do not care about what others say when they pose nude in a men’s magazine or wear a bizarre outfit. Getting out of poverty and to become famous are two things that prodded them to try their luck in Hollywood hoping that they could find the right people to help them in their budding career.

2. Their work ethic is infectious. Actors and singers are deprived of sleep as they have to stay awake until the following day to finish their commitment. They work hard not only because they know that they are highly compensated for their efforts, but because they want to leave a legacy when they are no longer active in the industry. Highest paid actors only spend 2 to 3 hours of sleep until their project is finished. But the prices they get from being workaholics can buy them a new house, a car, a set of jewelry and a swanky bag.

3. They work for the sake of art. Multi-awarded actors are choosy in their roles despite the high talent fee that they could receive for a particular project. Top caliber actors who have become financially stable would pick meaty roles that could earn them an Oscar award. They don’t mind if they have to go bald or topless for as long as the role will increase their level of creativity and transform them into a respected actor. Some celebrities accept roles that are challenging even if they don’t share the same billing stature with the main actors.

4. They are creative and unique. Famous Hollywood personalities defy the standard and social norms. They never stop creating and reinventing themselves to enable them to catch the public’s attention. Miley Cyrus, Madonna, J Lo, Michael Jackson and to name a few, had their own strings of gimmickry and controversy to promote their albums or movies. Even local artist in some key cities in the world do the same thing even if it could ruin their reputation and make them infamous. Defying the norm and ignoring their bashers is the best action that celebrities must do to succeed in their showbiz career. Gossips are part of showbiz and welcoming them with an open heart can make them stronger and better celebrities.

5. They think, believe and dream big. True artists think that there is no small role for them. Budding actors must heed what their veteran counterparts say that in order for them to be recognized and earn big, they should accept any role that can hone their acting prowess. Since the competition in the world of showbiz has become stiff, they must grab every opportunity that comes their way. Not unless they are products of reality shows or beauty contests, penetrating the entertainment industry is a bit hard. Changing their mindset from small to big things will inspire them to strive hard and make it big in showbiz.

6. They have a high emotional quotient. Although beauty and talent are important things to consider when discovering a new talent, movie directors and producers would prefer actors with a good work attitude. Celebrities who are acting like divas will most likely to lose their chance of getting the right break because their attitude can cause a lot of problems during location shooting. High EQ celebrities come to work before call time and they do not cause glitches or delay at work. They can mingle with anyone in the set from the director to the janitor. They can laugh at their own mistakes and can exchange jokes with their fellow workers, even if they have been sleepless for several nights. Most of all, they welcome strangers and mobbing fans for autograph and photo ops.

7. They enjoy every bit of their work. Become passionate about your work as an artist in the real sense of the word will give you more inspiration to hone your craft. Celebrities who are enjoying their career are the one who will become successful as they do not get discouraged when failure comes in one point of their lives.

8. Money and fame are only secondary. These two things that can lead to frustration if celebrities are unable to achieve them. Some famous celebrities who are getting less projects and their fans are ignoring them have become depressed and suicidal. This is because they think that money and fame are the most important things in life. But the truth is, any career that is taken with passion can be a great source of your finances if you know how to save your money.

Celebrities who have lost their careers because of their bad attitude have realized that becoming famous and wealthy does not happen overnight. They have to learn the traits that could propel their popularity and eventually land them a lot of projects.

Aspiring actors/actresses who are given the break should realize that the competition is so high in the industry. A single flaw is observed from you could put you down and it would be too late to realize that a newcomer will soon replace your position in showbiz. Getting rich quick is a mere fantasy as you need to start from scratch, and when you are already at the top of your success, remain humble and grounded.